The following appeared in a memorandum written by the chairperson of the West Egg Town Council."Two years ago, consultants predicted that West Egg's landfill, which is used for garbage disposal, would be completely filled within five years. During the pas

Essay topics: The following appeared in a memorandum written by the chairperson of the West Egg Town Council.

"Two years ago, consultants predicted that West Egg's landfill, which is used for garbage disposal, would be completely filled within five years. During the past two years, however, the town's residents have been recycling twice as much material as they did in previous years. Next month the amount of recycled material—which includes paper, plastic, and metal—should further increase, since charges for pickup of other household garbage will double. Furthermore, over 90 percent of the respondents to a recent survey said that they would do more recycling in the future. Because of our town's strong commitment to recycling, the available space in our landfill should last for considerably longer than predicted."

Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

zeroreh's picture

In this memo West Egg's mayor reasons that West Egg's residents are now strongly committed to recycling,and projects that the city's landfill will not be filled to capacity until considerably later than anticipated two years ago.To support this projection the mayor cites (1) a twofold increase in aluminum and paper recycling by West Egg residents over the last two years,(2) a.n impending twofold increase in charges for trash pickup,and (3) a recent survey in which 90%of respondents indicated that they intend to do more recycling in the future. For several reasons, I am not convinced that the mayor's projection is accurate.

To begin with,in all likelihood aluminum and paper account for only some of the materialsWest Egg's residents can recycle.Perhaps recycling of other recyclable materials- such as plastic and glass- has declined to the point that the total amount of recycled materials has also declined. If so, then the mayor could hardly justify the claim that West Egg's residents are becoming more committed to recycling.

Another problem with the argument is that an increase in the amount of recycled materials does not necessarily indicate a decrease in the total amount of trash deposited in the city's landfill. Admittedly, if West Egg residents previously disposed of certain recyclable materials that they now recycle instead, then this shift from disposal to recycling would serve to reduce the amount of trash going to the landfill. However,the mayor provides no evidence of such a shift.

Moreover,the argument overlooks the strong possibility that the recycling habits of West Egg residents are not the only factor affecting how quickly the landfill will reach capacity.Other such factors might include population and demographic shifts, the habits of people from outsideWest Egg whose trash also feeds the landfill,and the availability of alternative disposal methods such as burning.Thus, regardless of the recycling efforts of West Egg residents the landfill might nevertheless reach full capacity by the date originally forecast.

Yet another problem with the argument involves the mayor's implicit claim that increased charges for trash pickup will serve to slow the rate at which the landfill is reaching capacity.This claim relies on the unlikely assumption that West Egg residents have the option of recycling- or disposing in some other way- much of what they would otherwise send to the landfill.However,it is likely these residents have no practical choice but to send some refuse to the landfill.The greater the amount, the less likely higher trash charges would have any effect on how quickly the landfill reaches capacity.
Finally,the mayor provides no evidence that the survey's respondents are representative of the overall group of people whose trash goes to the city's landfill.Lacking such evidence,it is entirely possible that people inclined to recycle were more will- ing to respond to the survey than other people were. In short, without better evidence that the survey is statistically reliable the mayor cannot rely on it to draw any firm conclusions about the overall recycling commitment of West Egg residents- let alone about how quickly the landfill will reach capacity.

In sum,the mayor's projection is simply not credible,at least based on the memo. Rather than relying solely on questionable recycling statistics,the mayor should provide direct evidence that the amount of trash going to the landfill is declining and
that this trend will not reverse itself anytime soon.To better assess the accuracy of the mayor's projection it would be useful to know who besidesWest Egg residents contributes trash to the landfill,and whether the amount of trash those people contribute is declining or is likely to decline in the near future.

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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 1, column 102, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , and
... are now strongly committed to recycling,and projects that the citys landfill will n...
^^^^
Line 1, column 227, Rule ID: SENTENCE_WHITESPACE
Message: Add a space between sentences
Suggestion: To
...ly later than anticipated two years ago.To support this projection the mayor cites...
^^
Line 1, column 429, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , and
...old increase in charges for trash pickup,and 3 a recent survey in which 90%of respon...
^^^^
Line 1, column 591, Rule ID: POSSESIVE_APOSTROPHE[1]
Message: Possible typo: apostrophe is missing. Did you mean 'mayors'' or 'mayor's'?
Suggestion: mayors'; mayor's
...al reasons, I am not convinced that the mayors projection is accurate. To begin wit...
^^^^^^
Line 3, column 14, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , in
...projection is accurate. To begin with,in all likelihood aluminum and paper accou...
^^^
Line 3, column 69, Rule ID: SOME_OF_THE[1]
Message: Simply use 'some'.
Suggestion: some
...ood aluminum and paper account for only some of the materialsWest Eggs residents can recycl...
^^^^^^^^^^^
Line 3, column 122, Rule ID: SENTENCE_WHITESPACE
Message: Add a space between sentences
Suggestion: Perhaps
...aterialsWest Eggs residents can recycle.Perhaps recycling of other recyclable materials...
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Line 5, column 426, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , the
... of trash going to the landfill. However,the mayor provides no evidence of such a sh...
^^^^
Line 7, column 9, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , the
...no evidence of such a shift. Moreover,the argument overlooks the strong possibili...
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Line 7, column 183, Rule ID: SENTENCE_WHITESPACE
Message: Add a space between sentences
Suggestion: Other
...uickly the landfill will reach capacity.Other such factors might include population a...
^^^^^
Line 7, column 328, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , and
... Egg whose trash also feeds the landfill,and the availability of alternative disposa...
^^^^
Line 7, column 398, Rule ID: SENTENCE_WHITESPACE
Message: Add a space between sentences
Suggestion: Thus
...native disposal methods such as burning.Thus, regardless of the recycling efforts of...
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Line 9, column 185, Rule ID: SENTENCE_WHITESPACE
Message: Add a space between sentences
Suggestion: This
...which the landfill is reaching capacity.This claim relies on the unlikely assumption...
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Line 9, column 371, Rule ID: SENTENCE_WHITESPACE
Message: Add a space between sentences
Suggestion: However
...ey would otherwise send to the landfill.However,it is likely these residents have no pr...
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Line 9, column 378, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , it
...d otherwise send to the landfill.However,it is likely these residents have no pract...
^^^
Line 9, column 473, Rule ID: SENTENCE_WHITESPACE
Message: Add a space between sentences
Suggestion: The
...but to send some refuse to the landfill.The greater the amount, the less likely hig...
^^^
Line 10, column 8, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , the
... the landfill reaches capacity. Finally,the mayor provides no evidence that the sur...
^^^^
Line 10, column 157, Rule ID: SENTENCE_WHITESPACE
Message: Add a space between sentences
Suggestion: Lacking
... whose trash goes to the citys landfill.Lacking such evidence,it is entirely possible t...
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Line 10, column 178, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , it
...the citys landfill.Lacking such evidence,it is entirely possible that people inclin...
^^^
Line 12, column 7, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , the
... landfill will reach capacity. In sum,the mayors projection is simply not credibl...
^^^^
Line 12, column 12, Rule ID: POSSESIVE_APOSTROPHE[1]
Message: Possible typo: apostrophe is missing. Did you mean 'mayors'' or 'mayor's'?
Suggestion: mayors'; mayor's
...fill will reach capacity. In sum,the mayors projection is simply not credible,at le...
^^^^^^
Line 12, column 52, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , at
...mayors projection is simply not credible,at least based on the memo. Rather than re...
^^^
Line 12, column 144, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , the
...ely on questionable recycling statistics,the mayor should provide direct evidence th...
^^^^
Line 13, column 54, Rule ID: SENTENCE_WHITESPACE
Message: Add a space between sentences
Suggestion: To
...nd will not reverse itself anytime soon.To better assess the accuracy of the mayor...
^^
Line 13, column 91, Rule ID: POSSESIVE_APOSTROPHE[1]
Message: Possible typo: apostrophe is missing. Did you mean 'mayors'' or 'mayor's'?
Suggestion: mayors'; mayor's
...on.To better assess the accuracy of the mayors projection it would be useful to know w...
^^^^^^
Line 13, column 199, Rule ID: COMMA_PARENTHESIS_WHITESPACE
Message: Put a space after the comma
Suggestion: , and
...idents contributes trash to the landfill,and whether the amount of trash those peopl...
^^^^

Discourse Markers used:
['also', 'besides', 'but', 'finally', 'however', 'if', 'look', 'may', 'moreover', 'nevertheless', 'so', 'then', 'thus', 'at least', 'in short', 'such as', 'to begin with']

Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments

Performance in Part of Speech:
Nouns: 0.276827371695 0.25644967241 108% => OK
Verbs: 0.143079315708 0.15541462614 92% => OK
Adjectives: 0.0964230171073 0.0836205057962 115% => OK
Adverbs: 0.0622083981337 0.0520304965353 120% => OK
Pronouns: 0.0139968895801 0.0272364105082 51% => OK
Prepositions: 0.130637636081 0.125424944231 104% => OK
Participles: 0.0388802488336 0.0416121511921 93% => OK
Conjunctions: 2.9217475846 2.79052419416 105% => OK
Infinitives: 0.0342146189736 0.026700313972 128% => OK
Particles: 0.0 0.001811407834 0% => OK
Determiners: 0.124416796267 0.113004496875 110% => OK
Modal_auxiliary: 0.0233281493002 0.0255425247493 91% => OK
WH_determiners: 0.0139968895801 0.0127820249294 110% => OK

Vocabulary words and sentences:
No of characters: 3786.0 2731.13054187 139% => OK
No of words: 593.0 446.07635468 133% => OK
Chars per words: 6.3844856661 6.12365571057 104% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.93473315629 4.57801047555 108% => OK
words length more than 5 chars: 0.403035413153 0.378187486979 107% => OK
words length more than 6 chars: 0.315345699831 0.287650121315 110% => OK
words length more than 7 chars: 0.237774030354 0.208842608468 114% => OK
words length more than 8 chars: 0.161888701518 0.135150697306 120% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.9217475846 2.79052419416 105% => OK
Unique words: 276.0 207.018472906 133% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.465430016863 0.469332199767 99% => OK
Word variations: 56.4418445324 52.1807786196 108% => OK
How many sentences: 13.0 20.039408867 65% => OK
Sentence length: 45.6153846154 23.2022227129 197% => Sentence lengths are too long.
Sentence length SD: 185.827240505 57.7814097925 322% => The lengths of sentences changed so frequently.
Chars per sentence: 291.230769231 141.986410481 205% => Less chars per sentence wanted.
Words per sentence: 45.6153846154 23.2022227129 197% => Less words per sentence wanted.
Discourse Markers: 1.30769230769 0.724660767414 180% => Less Discourse Markers wanted.
Paragraphs: 8.0 5.14285714286 156% => OK
Language errors: 26.0 3.58251231527 726% => Correct essay format wanted or double check grammar & spelling issues after essay writing.
Readability: 77.1499545985 51.9672348444 148% => OK
Elegance: 2.03546099291 1.8405768891 111% => OK

Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.438910741345 0.441005458295 100% => OK
Sentence sentence coherence: 0.164917985391 0.135418324435 122% => OK
Sentence sentence coherence SD: 0.0731075498315 0.0829849096947 88% => OK
Sentence paragraph coherence: 0.766305554073 0.58762219726 130% => OK
Sentence paragraph coherence SD: 0.199322452716 0.147661913831 135% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.239434403729 0.193483328276 124% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.077394558946 0.0970749176394 80% => OK
Paragraph paragraph coherence: 0.476345479024 0.42659136922 112% => OK
Paragraph paragraph coherence SD: 0.0397501095842 0.0774707102158 51% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.301384475786 0.312017818177 97% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.050733733521 0.0698173142475 73% => The ideas may be duplicated in paragraphs.

Task Achievement:
Sentences with positive sentiment : 5.0 8.33743842365 60% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 6.0 6.87684729064 87% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 2.0 4.82512315271 41% => OK
Positive topic words: 5.0 6.46551724138 77% => OK
Negative topic words: 5.0 5.36822660099 93% => OK
Neutral topic words: 1.0 2.82389162562 35% => OK
Total topic words: 11.0 14.657635468 75% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?

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Rates: 70.83 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 4.25 Out of 6 -- The score is based on the average performance of 20,000 argument essays. This e-grader is not smart enough to check on arguments.
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Note: This is not the final score. The e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.

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