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# Physics Q1 Review

### Review of key terms and equations learned in quarter 1 of Physics.

Term | Definition |
---|---|

physics | the study of the physical world |

branches of physics | mechanics, thermodynamics, vibration and waves, optics, electricity and magnetism, relativity, and quantum mechanics |

scientific method of problem solving | state the problem gather information form hypothesis test hypothesis analyze data draw a conclusion |

experiment | procedure for testing hypothesis |

variable | quantity that can change |

independent vs. dependent variable | independent variable is the variable that you change and the dependent variable is the one you measure |

control variable | standard by which results are compared |

model | idea, system, or structure that represents reality |

standard | quantity people agree on to use for comparison |

measurement systems | English system (ft., cup, gallon, etc.) Metric system ( m., g., Celcius, etc.) SI system (m., Kg., K, etc.) |

volume | space occupied by an object |

length | distance between two points |

mass | amount of matter in an object measured in g, Kg, cg, mg, etc. (SI unit=Kg) |

density | mass per unit volume measured in g/cm^3, g/mL, kg/m^3, ect |

temperature | SI unit=K 0 K=-273°C=-460°F 100°C=212°F=373 K |

SI prefixes and conversions | G--M--KHD(b)dcm--μ--n |

scientific notation | 1=1x10^0 10=1x10^1 100=1x10^2 .1=1x10^-1 .01=1x10^-2 |

accurate | how right or wrong you are |

precision | refinement of a measurement |

significant figures | -all non-zero digits -not leading zeros -yes captive zeros -trailing sometimes 5.200 - yes 5200 - no |

derived units | combination of units |

mechanics | physics of motion and forces |

kinematics | mechanics describing motion with no regard to causes |

frame of reference | structure used in an experiment to show relationship between objects |

scalar | has a magnitude but no direction |

vector | has both a magnitude and direction |

resultant | vector representing sum of two or more vectors |

trajectory | parabolic path |

projectile | object projected into space by the exertion of a force |

angle at which projectiles are launched the farthest | 45° |

force | push or pull SI unit=N |

contact forces | forces between objects that are touching |

field forces | forces acting over a distance |

fundamental forces | - electromagnetic force - gravity - strong nuclear force - weak nuclear force |

equilibrium | when the sum of all forces acting on an object is 0 |

inertia | tendency of an object to resist change in motion |

Newton's first law of motion | motion will not change without external forces acting on it |

Newton's second law of motion | sum of all forces= mass x acceleration |

Newton's third law of motion | everything has an equal and opposite reaction |

energy | ability to cause change |

potential energy | stored energy |

acceleration of gravity | 9.81 m/s^2 |

free fall | motion under the influence of gravity only |

elastic potential energy vs. gravitational potential energy | elastic potential energy measures stored energy in a spring and gravitational potential energy has to do with how high above ground you are |

mechanical energy | sum of kinetic energy, elastic potential energy and gravitational potential energy (ME is conserved in the absence of friction) |

power | rate at which work is done SI unit=watts English unit=horsepower (hp) |

law of conservation of momentum | initial momentum=final momentum |