A prevalent phenomenon today is that students at schools mainly focus on learning the concepts and ideas on the textbooks instead of conducting experiment to learn the fact. Some people agree that because they think those ideas are essential extracted by giants of the fields and those concepts are highly abstract of fact. A considerable number of opponents, however, argue that knowledge should be based on fact instead of abstract concepts. As far as I am concerned, the latter view seems to align more with my personal perspective. Several reasons will support my point of view, and the following two will suffice here.
To begin with, even concepts are extract from the facts, it is not equal to say that they are absolutely right. As we all know, few things remain the same over a extended period of time. We have to take the environment and time into consideration when we try to justify a concept. To be specify, a kind of number is recognized as irrational. This is because a long time ago, people believe that all "good" numbers could be seen as an integer divided by another integer. Irrational numbers get their name because they do not fit in the formula. And the scholarship who discovered the irrational number was thrown to ocean for his finding challenging the axiom at that time. However, as we all know today, even though irrational number keep its name, it is pretty common and useful in mathematics, like the imaginary number. If a student could not learn this fact but only makes a judgement based on the name of this concept, he will definitely miss a lot.
For another, what we should keep in mind is that, the main purpose of education is to cultivate our children the sense and ability to explore. If they only try to understand ideas and concepts, they are only repeating the knowledge that is already known by human instead of exploring some new thing. Besides the sense of exploration, students should learn to view ideas and concepts critically. They should not accept everything given to them. And a major method the justify a thing is to do experiment and judge based on facts. For example, some researches may not be honest no their paper and they only show us the best result instead of the more common ones. And a well-trained scientist should think critically on these result and try to repeat the experiment to find out the truth. Thinking deeply and exploring the facts will be essential for students in their future career development.
Admittedly, a minority of people may argue that learning the ideas and concepts will save students a lot of time. However, the driven power behind the development of our society is making progress and exploring the unknown nature. Only by teach our students how to explore and innovate can our society keep moving forward.
For the reasons mentioned above, I think the most important thing students should learn is exploring the facts and challenging the concepts and ideas that are recognized as formula.