TOEFL T P O 47 - Integrated Writing Task
Write the essay now!
the reading and lecturer are both about power flight of pterosaurs, which were group of ancient winged reptiles lived alongside dinosaurs. The author of reading believes that many pterosaurs were able only to glide. The lecturer casts doubt on the claims made in the article. He thinks that pterosaurs were capable of power flight.
First of all, the author points out that pterosaurs were cold-blooded. It is mention that cold-blooded animals have slow metabolism and are unable to produce a lot of energy which require for power flight. This point is challenged by the lecturer. He says that according to recently studies pterosaurs were warm-blooded. Furthermore, he argues that pterosaurs had hair in the body and it is a typical example of warm-blooded animals because those animals need to maintain high body temperature in cold weather then pterosaurs had high metabolism and were able to produce enough energy for power flight.
Secondly, the author contends that pterosaurs were very heavy and large as giraffe. The article notes that they were unable to flap their wings fast to stay in the air. The lecture rebuts this argument. He suggests that pterosaurs were light for their size. He elaborates on this by mentioning that pterosaurs had anatomical future that is inside their bone were hollow instead of soled.
Finally, the author state that pterosaurs had small legs to take off from the ground. The article establishes that all the animals with power flight are able to jump or run fast to take off from the ground but pterosaurs had small and very week back legs to jump. The lecturer, on the other hand, posits that pterosaurs were take off different from other animals. He puts forth the idea that animals push with two legs while take off but pterosaurs had four strong legs and had no any problem while taking off even the large one.
In conclusion, the lecturer effectively casts doubt on all of claims and theories present in the article.