Unlike the passage, which mentions three explanations for the Little Ice Age, the lecture refutes all those theories made in the passage. The professor says that the information mentioned in the passage unfortunately out of date and scientists now know new information about the Little Ice Age.
First of all, the article mentions that Golf Stream might cause the Little Ice Age. On the other hand, the speaker explains that Golf disruption caused the temperature to decrease in Europe and North America, however, the Little Ice Age included New Zealand and Africa. Since the Gulf disruption cannot explain the very low temperature in New Zealand and Africa, it could not be the cause of the Little Ice Age.
Secondly, the professor opposes the volcanic theory mentioned in the reading, which states that volcanic eruption could have caused the Little Ice Age. He says that the clouds of the volcanic eruption could have caused visual problem to people at this time and the cloud might have been brown not white, there were not any reports of things like this, which might suggest that the volcanic eruption was not too big to cause the little Ice Age.
Lastly, decrease human population could have led to increase forest trees and the absorption of more carbon dioxide that keeps Earth warm, which mentioned in the article, is not a plausible theory according to the speaker. Furthermore, the speaker says that it needs very long time to cause the Little Ice Age. He elaborates on this by mentioning that human population increased again and they cut forest trees to plant crops for their food. That is why it was not too long to reduce temperature and cause the Little Ice Age, speaker says
- TPO-28 - Integrated Writing Task Robert E. Peary was a well-known adventurer and arctic explorer who in 1909 set out to reach the North Pole. When he returned from the expedition, he claimed to have reached the pole on April 7, 1909. This report made him 80
- TPO-09 - Integrated Writing Task Car manufacturers and governments have been eagerly seeking a replacement for the automobile's main source of power, the internal-combustion engine. By far the most promising alternative source of energy for cars is the hy 86
- TOEFL T P O 11 Integrated Writing Task 68
- TPO-27 - Integrated Writing Task The little ice age was a period of unusually cold temperature in many parts of the world that lasted from about the year 1350 until 1900CE. There were unusually harsh winters, and glaciers grew larger in many areas. Scient 73
- TPO-26 - Integrated Writing Task The zebra mussel, a freshwater shellfish native to Eastern Europe, has long been spreading out from its original habitats and has now reached parts of North America. There are reasons to believe that this invasion cannot b 65
Transition Words or Phrases used:
first, furthermore, however, lastly, second, secondly, so, first of all, on the other hand
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 7.0 10.4613686534 67% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 8.0 5.04856512141 158% => OK
Conjunction : 8.0 7.30242825607 110% => OK
Relative clauses : 14.0 12.0772626932 116% => OK
Pronoun: 21.0 22.412803532 94% => OK
Preposition: 27.0 30.3222958057 89% => OK
Nominalization: 10.0 5.01324503311 199% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1416.0 1373.03311258 103% => OK
No of words: 288.0 270.72406181 106% => OK
Chars per words: 4.91666666667 5.08290768461 97% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.11953428781 4.04702891845 102% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.37827706012 2.5805825403 92% => OK
Unique words: 139.0 145.348785872 96% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.482638888889 0.540411800872 89% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
syllable_count: 442.8 419.366225166 106% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 4.0 3.25607064018 123% => OK
Article: 7.0 8.23620309051 85% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 2.0 2.5761589404 78% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 11.0 13.0662251656 84% => Need more sentences. Double check the format of sentences, make sure there is a space between two sentences, or have enough periods. And also check the lengths of sentences, maybe they are too long.
Sentence length: 26.0 21.2450331126 122% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively long.
Sentence length SD: 58.9873217923 49.2860985944 120% => OK
Chars per sentence: 128.727272727 110.228320801 117% => OK
Words per sentence: 26.1818181818 21.698381199 121% => OK
Discourse Markers: 8.18181818182 7.06452816374 116% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 0.0 4.19205298013 0% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 2.0 4.33554083885 46% => More positive sentences wanted.
Sentences with negative sentiment : 3.0 4.45695364238 67% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 6.0 4.27373068433 140% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.474357739355 0.272083759551 174% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.21149826821 0.0996497079465 212% => Sentence topic similarity is high.
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.063466793796 0.0662205650399 96% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.29596082592 0.162205337803 182% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0620954654036 0.0443174109184 140% => OK
automated_readability_index: 14.8 13.3589403974 111% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 53.55 53.8541721854 99% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 5.55761589404 158% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 12.3 11.0289183223 112% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 11.55 12.2367328918 94% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 7.94 8.42419426049 94% => OK
difficult_words: 55.0 63.6247240618 86% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 11.5 10.7273730684 107% => OK
gunning_fog: 12.4 10.498013245 118% => OK
text_standard: 12.0 11.2008830022 107% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 73.3333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 22.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.