Pterosaurs were an ancient group of winged reptiles that lived alongside the dinosaurs Many pterosaurs were very large some as large as a giraffe and with a wingspan of over 12 meters Paleontologists have long wondered whether large pterosaurs were capabl

Essay topics:

Pterosaurs were an ancient group of winged reptiles that lived alongside the dinosaurs. Many pterosaurs were very large, some as large as a giraffe and with a wingspan of over 12 meters. Paleontologists have long wondered whether large pterosaurs were capable of powered flight (flying by flapping their wings) or whether they were able only to glide. Several arguments have been made against powered flight.

Doubters point out that since modern reptiles are cold-blooded, ancient reptiles such as pterosaurs were probably cold-blooded as well. Cold-blooded animals typically have a slow metabolism and are unable to produce a lot of energy. Powered flight is an activity requiring a lot of energy, which is why all modern vertebrates that fly are warm-blooded, not cold-blooded. It seems unlikely that pterosaurs would have been able to generate the energy needed to fly.

Second, there is a limit to the weight of animals that can be kept airborne by powered flight. Pterosaurs that were as large as a giraffe were probably so heavy that they would not have been able to flap their wings fast enough to stay aloft for any length of time.

Third, all animals with powered flight are able to take off from the ground. For example, birds take off by jumping from their legs or running to gain speed and then jumping. But these methods would not have worked for large pterosaurs. Large pterosaurs would have needed big, powerful muscles in their back legs to launch themselves into the air, and we know from fossilized bones that their back leg muscles were too small and weak to allow the pterosaurs to run fast enough or jump high enough to launch themselves into the air.

The article and the lecture both deal with whether pterosaurs can fly by flapping their wings. Whilst the author claims that pterosaurs were not capable of powered flight for three reasons, the lecturer contradicts his arguments respectively.

First, according to the reading, pterosaurs as an ancient reptile which are likely to be cold blooded can not generate enough energy for powered flight. In contrast, the professor argues that evidence has shown that pterosaurs have hair around their body, indicating that they are warm-blooded. Therefore, they are able to produce enough energy required for flight.

Second, the writer states that pterosaurs are too heavy to fly. However, the lecturer questions this argument by saying that pterosaurs actually have very light body weight because of their hollow bones, which are different from commonly known bones from other animals. Thus, weight is not a problem preventing them from flying.

Last but not least, the author posits that pterosaurs cannot take off from the ground because of their small and weak back leg muscles. As opposed to the writer, the speaker points out that unlike birds which only have two legs, pterosaurs have four legs which allow them to run very fast and jump fairly high. In short, they have no trouble in taking off from the ground.

Average: 7.8 (1 vote)
Essay Categories
Essays by the user:


Transition Words or Phrases used:
actually, but, first, however, if, second, so, therefore, thus, in contrast, in short

Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments

Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 8.0 10.4613686534 76% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 3.0 5.04856512141 59% => OK
Conjunction : 4.0 7.30242825607 55% => More conjunction wanted.
Relative clauses : 12.0 12.0772626932 99% => OK
Pronoun: 19.0 22.412803532 85% => OK
Preposition: 24.0 30.3222958057 79% => OK
Nominalization: 2.0 5.01324503311 40% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.

Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1109.0 1373.03311258 81% => OK
No of words: 214.0 270.72406181 79% => More content wanted.
Chars per words: 5.18224299065 5.08290768461 102% => OK
Fourth root words length: 3.82475343497 4.04702891845 95% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.34779022963 2.5805825403 91% => OK
Unique words: 138.0 145.348785872 95% => More unique words wanted.
Unique words percentage: 0.644859813084 0.540411800872 119% => OK
syllable_count: 318.6 419.366225166 76% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK

A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 2.0 3.25607064018 61% => OK
Article: 7.0 8.23620309051 85% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 3.0 2.5761589404 116% => OK

Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 11.0 13.0662251656 84% => Need more sentences. Double check the format of sentences, make sure there is a space between two sentences, or have enough periods. And also check the lengths of sentences, maybe they are too long.
Sentence length: 19.0 21.2450331126 89% => OK
Sentence length SD: 48.8724093604 49.2860985944 99% => OK
Chars per sentence: 100.818181818 110.228320801 91% => OK
Words per sentence: 19.4545454545 21.698381199 90% => OK
Discourse Markers: 7.72727272727 7.06452816374 109% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 0.0 4.19205298013 0% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 3.0 4.33554083885 69% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 6.0 4.45695364238 135% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 2.0 4.27373068433 47% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?

Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.196205750874 0.272083759551 72% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0713964996561 0.0996497079465 72% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0452343906148 0.0662205650399 68% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.118177064937 0.162205337803 73% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.037585475126 0.0443174109184 85% => OK

Essay readability:
automated_readability_index: 12.7 13.3589403974 95% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 60.65 53.8541721854 113% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 9.5 11.0289183223 86% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 12.76 12.2367328918 104% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.12 8.42419426049 96% => OK
difficult_words: 48.0 63.6247240618 75% => More difficult words wanted.
linsear_write_formula: 7.5 10.7273730684 70% => OK
gunning_fog: 9.6 10.498013245 91% => OK
text_standard: 13.0 11.2008830022 116% => OK
What are above readability scores?


Rates: 78.3333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 23.5 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.