TOEFL T P O 47 - Integrated Writing Task

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The reading passage and the lecture are both about the possible hypotheses which show the capability of flying by pterosaurs which were an ancient cluster of winged reptiles that dwelled in the era of the dinosaurs. More specifically, the writer discusses the suspicious indicate that these species were not able to fly by flapping their wings. The lecturer in the listening passage disagrees. She believes that there are firm proofs to witness their flying talent, and provides evidence to refute all mentioned disagreements in the article.
First of all, the author begins by stating that the modern vertebrates with powered flight, are thoroughly warm-blood animals. In contrast, pterosaurs categorize in blood-warm species, and by considering this fact, they could not provide an appropriate, massive amount of energy in order to fly. The lecturer, however, disagrees. She declares that the researches have been shown that pterosaurs possessed some dense hair-like covering that supplied the essential volume of energy required for flying in cold weather.
Furthermore, the author claims that the high weight of pterosaurs restricted them from flying. In other words, they would not have been able to flap their wings enough to flow above the ground. Again, the lecturer believes there are flaws in the writer's argument. The speaker holds that in spite of their immense shape, these animals' anatomy was instinctively light, which allowed them to stay aloft. She says that their bones structure were hollow rather than solid once; therefore, they could fly any length of time comfortably.
Lastly, the article mentions that the animals which can fly, have the ability to jump on their legs and running swiftly. But the giant pterosaurs might not operate as same as these methods since their back legs muscles were not strong enough. In turn, the professor in the listening part is doubtful that this is authentic. She states that they had a different approach for jumping and taking off for flying. She explains that birds utilize only two of their limbs for takeoff, but pterosaurs used all their four legs, not just the back once, and they contributed them for flying as possible as the other powered-flight animals.

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