The reading passage and the lecture are both about the possible hypotheses which show the capability of flying by pterosaurs which were an ancient cluster of winged reptiles that dwelled in the era of the dinosaurs. More specifically, the writer discusses the suspicious indicate that these species were not able to fly by flapping their wings. The lecturer in the listening passage disagrees. She believes that there are firm proofs to witness their flying talent, and provides evidence to refute all mentioned disagreements in the article.
First of all, the author begins by stating that the modern vertebrates with powered flight, are thoroughly warm-blood animals. In contrast, pterosaurs categorize in blood-warm species, and by considering this fact, they could not provide an appropriate, massive amount of energy in order to fly. The lecturer, however, disagrees. She declares that the researches have been shown that pterosaurs possessed some dense hair-like covering that supplied the essential volume of energy required for flying in cold weather.
Furthermore, the author claims that the high weight of pterosaurs restricted them from flying. In other words, they would not have been able to flap their wings enough to flow above the ground. Again, the lecturer believes there are flaws in the writer's argument. The speaker holds that in spite of their immense shape, these animals' anatomy was instinctively light, which allowed them to stay aloft. She says that their bones structure were hollow rather than solid once; therefore, they could fly any length of time comfortably.
Lastly, the article mentions that the animals which can fly, have the ability to jump on their legs and running swiftly. But the giant pterosaurs might not operate as same as these methods since their back legs muscles were not strong enough. In turn, the professor in the listening part is doubtful that this is authentic. She states that they had a different approach for jumping and taking off for flying. She explains that birds utilize only two of their limbs for takeoff, but pterosaurs used all their four legs, not just the back once, and they contributed them for flying as possible as the other powered-flight animals.
- TPO-48 - Independent Writing Task Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?Because modern life is very complex, it is essential for young people to have the ability to plan and organize. 48
- TPO 21 - Integrated TOEFL essay 83
- TPO 53 3
- T P O 20 - Integrated TOEFL essay 3
- TPO 49 - Integrated writing 80
Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 3, column 246, Rule ID: POSSESIVE_APOSTROPHE
Message: Possible typo: apostrophe is missing. Did you mean 'writers'' or 'writer's'?
Suggestion: writers'; writer's
...ecturer believes there are flaws in the writers argument. The speaker holds that in spi...
Line 3, column 326, Rule ID: POSSESIVE_APOSTROPHE
Message: Possible typo: apostrophe is missing. Did you mean 'animals'' or 'animal's'?
Suggestion: animals'; animal's
... in spite of their immense shape, these animals anatomy was instinctively light, which ...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
but, first, furthermore, however, if, lastly, so, then, therefore, well, in contrast, first of all, in other words, in spite of
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 13.0 10.4613686534 124% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 5.0 5.04856512141 99% => OK
Conjunction : 8.0 7.30242825607 110% => OK
Relative clauses : 18.0 12.0772626932 149% => OK
Pronoun: 41.0 22.412803532 183% => Less pronouns wanted
Preposition: 42.0 30.3222958057 139% => OK
Nominalization: 2.0 5.01324503311 40% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1867.0 1373.03311258 136% => OK
No of words: 358.0 270.72406181 132% => OK
Chars per words: 5.21508379888 5.08290768461 103% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.34981470047 4.04702891845 107% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.5777946241 2.5805825403 100% => OK
Unique words: 206.0 145.348785872 142% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.575418994413 0.540411800872 106% => OK
syllable_count: 555.3 419.366225166 132% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.55342163355 103% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 9.0 3.25607064018 276% => Less pronouns wanted as sentence beginning.
Article: 10.0 8.23620309051 121% => OK
Subordination: 0.0 1.25165562914 0% => More adverbial clause wanted.
Conjunction: 5.0 1.51434878587 330% => Less conjunction wanted as sentence beginning.
Preposition: 3.0 2.5761589404 116% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 18.0 13.0662251656 138% => OK
Sentence length: 19.0 21.2450331126 89% => OK
Sentence length SD: 50.5358020017 49.2860985944 103% => OK
Chars per sentence: 103.722222222 110.228320801 94% => OK
Words per sentence: 19.8888888889 21.698381199 92% => OK
Discourse Markers: 7.05555555556 7.06452816374 100% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 2.0 4.19205298013 48% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 5.0 4.33554083885 115% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 8.0 4.45695364238 179% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 5.0 4.27373068433 117% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.0 0.272083759551 0% => The similarity between the topic and the content is low.
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0 0.0996497079465 0% => Sentence topic similarity is low.
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0 0.0662205650399 0% => Sentences are similar to each other.
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.0 0.162205337803 0% => Maybe some paragraphs are off the topic.
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0 0.0443174109184 0% => Paragraphs are similar to each other. Some content may get duplicated or it is not exactly right on the topic.
automated_readability_index: 13.1 13.3589403974 98% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 52.19 53.8541721854 97% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 10.7 11.0289183223 97% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 13.0 12.2367328918 106% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.81 8.42419426049 105% => OK
difficult_words: 96.0 63.6247240618 151% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 11.0 10.7273730684 103% => OK
gunning_fog: 9.6 10.498013245 91% => OK
text_standard: 11.0 11.2008830022 98% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Write the essay in 20 minutes.
It is not exactly right on the topic in the view of e-grader. Maybe there is a wrong essay topic.
Rates: 3.33333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 1.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.