SAT Reading - Khan Diagnostic Quiz level 2 - reading 19

Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.

Passage 1 is an excerpt from The Influence of Sea Power Upon History by A.T. Mahan, originally published in 1890. Passage 2 is an excerpt from Maritime Security, Sea Power, and Trade, a speech given in 2014 by Tom Kelly, the Acting Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs.

Passage 1

The first and most obvious light in which the sea
presents itself from the political and social point of view is
that of a great highway; or better, perhaps, of a wide
common, over which men may pass in all directions, but on
5 which some well-worn paths show that controlling reasons
have led them to choose certain lines of travel rather than
Under modern conditions, home trade is but a part of
the business of a country bordering on the sea. Foreign
10 necessaries or luxuries must be brought to its ports, either
in its own or in foreign ships, which will return, bearing in
exchange the products of the country, whether they be the
fruits of the earth or the works of men's hands; and it is the
wish of every nation that this shipping business should be
15 done by its own vessels. The ships that thus sail to and fro
must have secure ports to which to return, and must, as far
as possible, be followed by the protection of their country
throughout the voyage.
. . . .
20 In these three things—production, with the necessity of
exchanging products, shipping, whereby the exchange is
carried on, and colonies, which facilitate and enlarge the
operations of shipping and tend to protect it by
multiplying points of safety—is to be found the key to
25 much of the history, as well as of the policy, of nations
bordering upon the sea. The policy has varied both with
the spirit of the age and with the character and clear-
sightedness of the rulers; but the history of the seaboard
nations has been less determined by the shrewdness and
30 foresight of governments than by conditions of position,
extent, configuration, number and character of their
people,—by what are called, in a word, natural conditions.
It must however be admitted, and will be seen, that the
wise or unwise action of individual men has at certain
35 periods had a great modifying influence upon the growth of
sea power in the broad sense, which includes not only the
military strength afloat, that rules the sea or any part of it
by force of arms, but also the peaceful commerce and
shipping from which alone a military fleet naturally and
40 healthfully springs, and on which it securely rests.

Passage 2

One of the great strategic advantages of the United
States is that, as "America, the Beautiful" reminds us, our
nation stretches from "sea to shining sea." The oceans have
been part of our identity – and our protection – since the
45 founding of the country. They have been the path through
which we became both a great commercial and a great
military force. I may be a diplomat, but I believe in naval
power. It makes my job easier. I grew up on the shores of
the Pacific Ocean. My professional background is in trade.
50 So it’s very natural for me to see the oceans and our
maritime security as essential to our continued prosperity.
Ninety percent of world trade is conducted on the
oceans. Our food, our fuel, our imports and exports all
travel on these global economic highways. Maritime trade
55 is our nation’s life blood. Keeping the oceans free for
commerce – in two words, maritime security – is key to our
national security.
Today, this phrase encompasses a complex set of issues,
including both public and private activities, sometimes
60 with diametrically opposed interests. . . . Mother Nature
reminded us that she still controls some aspects of
maritime security. . . . Climate change is affecting the
Arctic. As the ice cap shrinks, old shipping lanes are
expanding and, in some cases, new ones are opening.
65 Opening these Arctic lanes to commerce and keeping them
free will be important. As the lanes open, we’ll see more
demand for access to the Arctic’s natural resources, which
in turn may raise the stakes on territorial disputes.
We should remember that outside the domestic waters
70 of the United States, securing our own maritime security
depends on our foreign policy. Our security assistance
programs. . . can be a critical tool to support states trying
to build their security capacity, which feeds into larger
foreign policy objectives beyond achieving peace and
75 security – such as promoting economic growth, democracy,
and human rights

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