SAT Reading - Khan Diagnostic Quiz level 2 - reading 8

Questions 1-11 are based on the following

Adapted from Terry F. Pettijohn II, Kimberly E. LaPiene, Terry F. Pettijohn, and Amanda L. Horting, "Relationships between Facebook Intensity, Friendship Contingent Self-Esteem, and Personality in U.S. College Students." (C) 2012 by Terry F.Pettijohn II et al.

Online social networking sites, such as Facebook,

Google, and Bebo, have grown in popularity in recent years

and they provide an exciting new area of study in the field of
psychology. Facebook provides individuals with easy access
5 to view personal information about their friends, coworkers,

and even complete strangers. Facebook has over 500 million

active users and every month over 700 billion minutes are

spent on Facebook. Among U.S. college students, 96% have

a Facebook account. Given the popularity of online social
10 networking sites, Facebook in particular, the current study

was designed to investigate the relationship between

Facebook use, the importance of quality of friendships to

self-esteem, and personality in college students.
Social relationships are considered by many to be the most
15 important component of human life. With the expansion of

the Internet and social networking sites, more people are

using technology to communicate with their friends and

family online and maintain these interpersonal connections in

novel ways that were not available in previous generations.
20 Some researchers initially believed online activities

negatively impacted relationships and feared that virtual

communication would replace face-to-face interactions and

deteriorate social bonds. Others, however, have found

support for the idea that social networking sites and the
25 Internet have expanded methods of staying socially

connected with others and increased relationship closeness

and connectedness. Social networking sites, such as

Facebook, allow users to add “friends” and keep track of

their status, interests, photos, “likes,” and updates of others’
30 personal information in cyberspace.
Internet use is related to both positive and negative

psychological and social factors, but the key to understanding

these outcomes is through examining specific types of

Internet use instead of simply the amount of time spent
35 online. While using social media can have positive benefits

associated with community engagement, education, social

connectedness, and identity development, it can also lead to

risks linked to social rejection, cyberbullying, depression,

exposure to inappropriate content, and other negative
40 consequences related to general well-being. For example, a

negative relationship has been found between time spent

using electronic media, including social networking sites, and

college grades. In college, upper-class students with more

Facebook friends reported high levels of social adjustment
45 and stronger attachment to the college than students with less

Facebook friends, although freshmen did not benefit from

having more Facebook friends and actually reported

decreased social and emotional adjustment.
With respect to self-esteem, the research is also mixed,
50 especially considering the different types of self-esteem. In

certain cases, excessive Facebook use may be related to

lower general self-esteem. For example, Mehdizadeh (2010)

found a significant negative correlation between self-esteem

and the number of times students checked Facebook per day
55 and between self-esteem and the time spent on Facebook per

session. Those with lower self-esteem also presented less

self-promoting content on Facebook pages. However,

Facebook can enhance self-esteem specifically related to the

social functions of the self (social self-esteem) when
60 individuals receive positive comments and feedback from

their friends online. In addition, researchers have found that

introverted individuals and individuals with low self-esteem

may benefit from the social opportunities provided by the

Facebook interface, without the anxiety of interacting face-
65 to-face.
Facebook provides an opportunity for individuals who

value their friendships to stay informed about social events

and this technology may be particularly important and highly

utilized by individuals whose value of themselves is
70 contingent on how well their relationships with friends are

succeeding... Related to the current investigation, the quality

of friendships and how this quality affects self-esteem may

be correlated with the frequency and intensity in which

individuals engage in social networking. Individuals who
75 value their friendships and see these friendships as important

dimensions of themselves may engage in increased social

networking behaviors to provide additional means for

keeping connected with friends and sharing personal


* Changed for cultural accuracy.

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Question 1 The primary purpose of the passage is to