TPO 15 - Question 4
One objective of any experiment is, of course, to obtain accurate results. Sometimes, however, problems occur that lead to inaccurate results. One such problem is the experimenter effect. The experimenter effect occurs when a researcher’s expectations affect the outcome of the experiment. The researcher expects a particular result from the experiment, and that expectation causes the researcher to act in ways that influence the behavior of the experiment participants, thereby invalidating the results of the experiment.
1. For example, I recently read about a case in which a researcher was given two groups of monkeys and he was asked to train these monkeys to pick up ball and puck it in a box.
2. And he was told to record how many hours it took to train each monkey to learn to do this.
3. Now before he started the training, the researcher was told that one group of monkeys was highly intelligent, and that the other group was less intelligent.
4. In truth, there was no difference between them.
5. All the monkeys were actually very similar in terms of intelligence.
6. But the researcher didn't know that.
7. He though one group was smarter.
8. So he expected that that group would be easier to train.
9. So what happened?
10. Well, the researcher trained the monkeys to perform the action and it turned out that on average it took him two hours less time to train the supposedly smart monkeys than these supposedly less intelligent monkeys.
11. Why?Well, it turns out that with the supposedly smart monkeys, the researcher smile them a lot, gave me a lot of encouragement, talked to them a lot, worked hard to communicate with them.
12. But with the monkeys he thought were less intelligent, he wasn't enthusiastic.
13. He didn't try quite as hard, wasn't quite as optimistic.
- Using the example of the mole, explain the two different types of underground adaptation. 90
- What is your most important possession? Describe it and say why it is so important. 83
- People make friends in many different ways. What do you think is a good way to make new friends? Use specific details and examples in your response. 50
- Using points and examples form the talk, explain the concept of diffusion. 81
- Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One of the best ways to learn is by making mistakes. Use specific examples and details to support your opinion. 90
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 636.0 592.248995984 107% => OK
No of words: 173.0 155.574297189 111% => OK
Chars per words: 3.67630057803 3.80514564318 97% => OK
Fourth root words length: 3.62669911048 3.525876923 103% => OK
Word Length SD: 1.82765023717 1.79077849142 102% => OK
Unique words: 107.0 93.7148594378 114% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.618497109827 0.604071249207 102% => OK
Syllable count: 222.3 185.844578313 120% => OK
Avg_syllables_per_word: 1.3 1.19417670683 109% => OK
Performance on coherence:
Topic speech coherence ratio: 0.027110633443 0.0650381309087 42% => It may have issues on recording quality or the content is not so closely related to content.
Acoustic performance on paragraphs:
How many acoustic paragraphs: 32.0 4.35341365462 735% => Need less acoustic paragraphs.
Average paragraph length: 5.46875 68.503853103 8% => The average paragraph length is low.
STD paragraph length: 5.73358730966 21.3332995233 27% => OK
Average paragraph duration: 2.9615625 25.9943957902 11% => The speaking content is not well organized.
STD paragraph duration: 2.31726685636 7.84667146824 30% => The duration of acoustic paragraphs keeps same.
Acoustic performance on sentences:
How many acoustic sentences: 67.0 42.0642570281 159% => OK
Average acoustic sentence length: 2.58208955224 4.02192344571 64% => OK
STD acoustic sentence length: 1.90951469752 3.1217529195 61% => OK
Average acoustic sentences duration: 1.06910447761 1.45093177766 74% => OK
STD acoustic sentences duration: 0.639882758252 0.99851816184 64% => OK
Acoustic performance on acoustic silence:(An acoustic silence means a little pause between two or more words)
How many acoustic silence: 52.0 39.0421686747 133% => It means the content is not pronounced smoothly or it is pronounced slowly. It is word by word.
Total acoustic silence duration: 10.0 7.12997991968 140% => It may have a lot of silences or every silence is too long.
Average acoustic silence duration: 0.192307692308 0.185688545393 104% => OK
STD acoustic silence duration: 0.15808487721 0.155154303396 102% => OK
Acoustic performance on acoustic words:
Total word duration: 60.79 47.1480722892 129% => OK
Average word duration: 0.351387283237 0.305395592593 115% => OK
STD word duration: 0.207624425429 0.189427763521 110% => OK
Disfluencies: like hesitations, or 'ehn' or taking a long time to pronounce a word:
How many disfluencies: 16.0 7.94979919679 201% => It may have 'ehn' in the speaking, or it has hesitations or overlapping speeches.
Total_disfluencies_duration: 12.27 6.2937751004 195% => Somehow the hesitation is serious.
Total acoustic noise duration: 21.16 3.39508032129 623% => It may have issues on recording quality or have issues on silences or disfluencies.
Total speech duration: 94.77 59.7592369478 159% => Need to finish the speech on time.
Compare to expected duration: 1.5795 0.995987282463 159% => It is over the expected time.
Rate of silence: 0.548696844993 0.656000678711 84% => OK
Rate of speech: 1.82547219584 2.60215298798 70% => Need to bring more content.
Rate of speech by unique words: 1.1290492772 1.56821927147 72% => More unique words wanted.
Rate of word duration by unique words: 1.76015792071 1.99336655568 88% => Need more unique words.
Average articulation rates: 0.412803728324 0.317803793328 130% => OK
The speech is either too short or too long. It should be in 60 seconds.
Rates: 50.0 out of 100
Scores by speech e-grader: 15.0 Out of 30
Note: the speech e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas.