Welcome to AMERICAN MOSAIC, in VOA Special English.
I'm Doug Johnson. On our show this week:
Some Grammy-winning music ...
A question about American museums ...
And a report about a scientific anniversary.
One hundred years ago, Albert
Einstein published several papers that caused a revolution in
scientific thought. Now physicists and others are celebrating
Einstein's "miracle year." Shep O'Neal has more.
SHEP O'NEAL: The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics
has declared two thousand five the World Year of Physics. The United
Nations is honoring the International Year of Physics. And in
Einstein's birthplace, Germany, officials have declared this the
Einstein Anniversary Year.
In nineteen-oh-five, Albert Einstein began a scientific
discussion that continues today. It involves the nature of the
universe. Einstein presented ideas that went against hundreds of
years of scientific thought.
In his Special Theory of Relativity, he argued that time and
space are conditional properties. They depend on the position of the
observer. Observers moving at different speeds, for example,
experience space and time differently. Einstein said only the speed
of light and the laws of nature are unconditional.
Albert Einstein was just twenty-six years old when he published
this theory in nineteen-oh-five. Another of his papers from that
year helped prove the existence of atoms. Still another argued that
light acts as if made of particles, not waves as scientists thought.
Einstein later won a Nobel Prize for that paper.
His ideas about light led to the development of quantum theory.
This describes how energy and matter act at the level of atoms and
parts of atoms. Quantum theory guides most physics research today.
Events to celebrate the anniversary include the usual, like
scientific conferences and museum shows, but also the unusual. In
Tokyo, dancers and actors will perform a play about Einstein in Noh,
traditional Japanese theater.
This year is also the fiftieth anniversary of Einstein's death.
He died on April eighteenth, nineteen fifty-five, in Princeton, New
Jersey, his home for many years.
On the night of this April eighteenth, people in Princeton are
supposed to turn off their lights. From the darkness, a light is to
shine into the sky. This will signal the start of an event called
"Physics Enlightens the World." The goal is to create an unbroken
signal around the world.
Flashes of light will travel westward across the United States.
Then a signal will go by cable under the Pacific Ocean to East Asia
and Oceania. The light will continue to China, then divide into two
paths. The northern path will include Russia, Ukraine, Belarus,
Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The southern path will go
through India, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Bulgaria, Serbia and Hungary.
The two paths will join again in Austria and go through
Switzerland to France. From there, a signal will be sent by cable
under the Atlantic to Princeton. The plan is for the signal to
arrive exactly twenty-four hours after the relay began.
Organizers say anyone in any country can take part. The aim is to
have stations close enough so that each one can see the light of the
one before it. People are being urged to think of ways to send a
signal with light while obeying local laws and avoiding light
Internet users can learn more about this and other events during
the World Year of Physics at w-y-p2005 dot o-r-g (wyp2005.org).
And to learn more about Albert Einstein, listen Wednesday to the
VOA Special English program, EXPLORATIONS.
DOUG JOHNSON: Our VOA listener question this week comes from
Bangladesh. M.H. Mamun Rashid asks about the number of museums in
the United States and which one is the largest.
Well, as far as the largest, we could not get an answer, not even
from the American Association of Museums. In fact, that organization
points out that there is not even a simple answer to the question,
"what is a museum?" What museums all have in common, it says, is
that they aid the public "by collecting, preserving and interpreting
the things of this world." This definition covers many different
kinds of places -- including zoos.
The American Association of Museums says it knows of only two
attempts to count all the museums in the country. One was in
nineteen ninety-eight, the other in two thousand three. Both studies
counted between fifteen thousand and sixteen thousand museums.
Another study in two thousand three looked for the most popular
kinds of museums in the United States. It found that zoos get the
most visitors by far. Next come science and technology museums,
followed by arboretums and botanical gardens. At the bottom of the
list are history museums.
Did you see the Grammy Awards last
Sunday? In case you missed the winners in Los Angeles, here is Faith
Lapidus with some of the results.
FAITH LAPIDUS: The most Grammys this year, eight, went to "Genius
Loves Company," the final album by Ray Charles and friends. He died
last June at the age of seventy-three. Honors for "Genius Loves
Company" include album of the year and record of the year.
The record of the year is this song performed by Ray Charles and
Norah Jones, called "Here We Go Again."
Among other nominees, Green Day won the Grammy for best rock
album for "American Idiot."
And members of the National Academy of Recording Arts and
Sciences gave John Mayer song-of-the-year honors for "Daughters."
DOUG JOHNSON: I'm Doug Johnson. I hope you enjoyed our program
Our show was written by Nancy Steinbach and Caty Weaver. And for
the last time, Paul Thompson was the producer. He will be missed.
Our engineer was Efeem Drucker.
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