Endotherms are animals such as modern birds and mammals that keep their body temperatures constant. For instance, humans are endotherms and maintain an
internal temperature of 37℃,no matter whether the environment is warm or cold. Because dinosaurs were reptiles, and modern reptiles are not endotherms, it was long assumed that dinosaurs were not endotherms. However, dinosaurs differ in many ways from modern reptiles, and there is now considerable evidence that dinosaurs were, in fact, endotherms.
One reason for believing that dinosaurs were endotherms is that dinosaur fossils have been discovered in Polar Regions. Only animals that can maintain a temperature well above that of the surrounding environment could be active in such cold climates.
Leg position and movement
There is a connection between endothermy and the position and movement of the legs. The physiology of endothermy allows sustained physical activity, such as running. But running is efficient only if an animal’s legs are positioned underneath its body, not at the body’s side, as they are for crocodiles and many lizards. The legs of all modern endotherms are underneath the body, and so were the legs of dinosaurs. This strongly suggests that dinosaurs were endotherms.
There is also a connection between endothermy and bone structure.
The bones of endotherms usually include structures called Haversian canals. These canals house nerves and blood vessels that allow the living animal to grow quickly, and rapid body growth is in fact a characteristic of endothermy. The presence of Haversian canals in bone is a strong indicator that the animal is an endotherm, and fossilized bones of dinosaurs are usually dense with Haversian canals.
Both the article and the listening discuss endotherms, which are animals that are able to maintain stable temperature irrespective of their location. The author says that there are enough proof that support the claim that dinosaurs are endotherms. However, the professor refutes this point by saying that some scientists are doubtful of those evidence, and attack each of the points made in the reading.
First and foremost, the writer posits that dinosaur fossils discovered at the polar region proves that they are endotherms, because only endotherms are able to maintain a temperature above the surrounding temperature of the polar region. This specific argument is being challenged by the lecturer. She contends that this evidence is not enough to presume that dinosaurs are endotherms. Moreover, maybe the temperature then was warm enough for animals that are not endotherms to survive. It could also be that the dinosaurs migrated to the region because it was good for their survival.
Secondly, the author avers that the connection between endothermy, the position, and movement of legs proves that dinosaurs are endotherm. According to the reading passage, the physiology of endothermy allows endotherms to perform some physical activities such as running and it is only efficient when the animals legs are beneath their body like the dinosaurs. Nevertheless, the speaker rebuts this idea by saying that this characteristics doesn't mean that dinosaurs are endotherms. He goes on to say that dinosaurs are gigantic and they use their legs to support their large body. Finally, the author brought his argument into conclusion by claiming that dinosaurs are endotherms because of the possession of Haversian canals in dinosaurs, which aids the rapid growth in animals and a significant feature of endotherms. Not surprisingly, the professor takes issue with this claim by arguing that the evidence from the growth rings shows that dinosaurs experience slow growth during the cold period which is not expected from animals that are endotherms.
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 1, column 310, Rule ID: WHITESPACE_RULE
Message: Possible typo: you repeated a whitespace
...r refutes this point by saying that some scientists are doubtful of those evidenc...
Line 3, column 420, Rule ID: THIS_NNS
Message: Did you mean 'these'?
...speaker rebuts this idea by saying that this characteristics doesnt mean that dinosa...
Line 3, column 441, Rule ID: EN_CONTRACTION_SPELLING
Message: Possible spelling mistake found
...dea by saying that this characteristics doesnt mean that dinosaurs are endotherms. He ...
Line 3, column 710, Rule ID: WHITESPACE_RULE
Message: Possible typo: you repeated a whitespace
... endotherms because of the possession of Haversian canals in dinosaurs, which aid...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, but, finally, first, however, if, may, moreover, nevertheless, second, secondly, so, then, such as
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 23.0 10.4613686534 220% => Less to be verbs wanted.
Auxiliary verbs: 1.0 5.04856512141 20% => OK
Conjunction : 7.0 7.30242825607 96% => OK
Relative clauses : 24.0 12.0772626932 199% => OK
Pronoun: 40.0 22.412803532 178% => Less pronouns wanted
Preposition: 37.0 30.3222958057 122% => OK
Nominalization: 10.0 5.01324503311 199% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1729.0 1373.03311258 126% => OK
No of words: 321.0 270.72406181 119% => OK
Chars per words: 5.38629283489 5.08290768461 106% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.23278547379 4.04702891845 105% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.8002782388 2.5805825403 109% => OK
Unique words: 162.0 145.348785872 111% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.504672897196 0.540411800872 93% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
syllable_count: 531.0 419.366225166 127% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.7 1.55342163355 109% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 4.0 3.25607064018 123% => OK
Article: 9.0 8.23620309051 109% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 2.0 1.51434878587 132% => OK
Preposition: 1.0 2.5761589404 39% => More preposition wanted as sentence beginning.
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 14.0 13.0662251656 107% => OK
Sentence length: 22.0 21.2450331126 104% => OK
Sentence length SD: 60.4984398517 49.2860985944 123% => OK
Chars per sentence: 123.5 110.228320801 112% => OK
Words per sentence: 22.9285714286 21.698381199 106% => OK
Discourse Markers: 7.42857142857 7.06452816374 105% => OK
Paragraphs: 3.0 4.09492273731 73% => More paragraphs wanted.
Language errors: 4.0 4.19205298013 95% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 8.0 4.33554083885 185% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 2.0 4.45695364238 45% => More negative sentences wanted.
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 4.0 4.27373068433 94% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.23613080343 0.272083759551 87% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0825607369131 0.0996497079465 83% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0635488137959 0.0662205650399 96% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.15875274341 0.162205337803 98% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0588771529566 0.0443174109184 133% => OK
automated_readability_index: 15.4 13.3589403974 115% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 40.69 53.8541721854 76% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 5.55761589404 158% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 13.1 11.0289183223 119% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 14.28 12.2367328918 117% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.66 8.42419426049 103% => OK
difficult_words: 80.0 63.6247240618 126% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 14.0 10.7273730684 131% => OK
gunning_fog: 10.8 10.498013245 103% => OK
text_standard: 14.0 11.2008830022 125% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Write the essay in 20 minutes.
Minimum four paragraphs wanted. The correct pattern:
para 1: introduction
para 2: doubt 1
para 3: doubt 2
para 4: doubt 3
Less contents wanted from the reading passages(25%), more content wanted from the lecture (75%).
Don't need a conclusion paragraph.
Read sample essays from ETS:
Rates: 81.6666666667 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 24.5 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.