Unlike the passage, which mentions three explanations for the Little Ice Age, the lecture refutes all those theories made in the passage. The professor says that the information mentioned in the passage unfortunately out of date and scientists now know new information about the Little Ice Age.
First of all, the article mentions that Gulf Stream might cause the Little Ice Age. On the other hand, the speaker explains that Gulf disruption caused the temperature to decrease in Europe and North America, however, the Little Ice Age included New Zealand and Africa. Since the Gulf disruption cannot explain the very low temperature in New Zealand and Africa, it could not have caused the Little Ice Age.
Secondly, the professor opposes the volcanic theory mentioned in the reading, which states that volcanic eruption could have caused the Little Ice Age. He says that the clouds of the volcanic eruption could have caused visual problem to people at this time and the cloud might have been grey to brown not white. Although, there were not any reports of things like this, which might suggest that the volcanic eruption was not too big to cause the little Ice Age.
Lastly, decrease human population could have led to increase forest trees and the absorption of more carbon dioxide that mentioned in the article as a reason to cause the Little Ice Age, is not a plausible theory according to the speaker. Furthermore, the speaker says that it needs very long time to cause the Little Ice Age to occur. He elaborates on this by mentioning that human population increased again and they might have cut forest trees to plant crops for their food. That is why it was not too long to reduce temperature and cause the Little Ice Age, speaker says
- TPO-01 - Integrated Writing Task In the United States, employees typically work five days a week for eight hours each day. However, many employees want to work a four-day week and are willing to accept less pay inorder to do so. A mandatory policy requiri 70
- TPO-05 - Integrated Writing Task As early as the twelfth century A.D., the settlements of Chaco Canyon in New Mexico in the American Southwest were notable for their "great houses," massive stone buildings that contain hundreds of rooms and often stand th 78
- TPO-26 - Integrated Writing Task The zebra mussel, a freshwater shellfish native to Eastern Europe, has long been spreading out from its original habitats and has now reached parts of North America. There are reasons to believe that this invasion cannot b 76
- TPO-49 - Integrated Writing Task Like many creatures, humpback whales migrate long distances for feeding and mating purposes. How animals manage to migrate long distances is often puzzling. In the case of humpback whales, we may have found the answer: the 80
- TPO-26 - Integrated Writing Task The zebra mussel, a freshwater shellfish native to Eastern Europe, has long been spreading out from its original habitats and has now reached parts of North America. There are reasons to believe that this invasion cannot b 65
Transition Words or Phrases used:
first, furthermore, however, lastly, second, secondly, so, first of all, on the other hand
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 6.0 10.4613686534 57% => More to be verbs wanted.
Auxiliary verbs: 9.0 5.04856512141 178% => OK
Conjunction : 8.0 7.30242825607 110% => OK
Relative clauses : 13.0 12.0772626932 108% => OK
Pronoun: 21.0 22.412803532 94% => OK
Preposition: 29.0 30.3222958057 96% => OK
Nominalization: 10.0 5.01324503311 199% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1456.0 1373.03311258 106% => OK
No of words: 298.0 270.72406181 110% => OK
Chars per words: 4.88590604027 5.08290768461 96% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.15483772266 4.04702891845 103% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.3787851902 2.5805825403 92% => OK
Unique words: 138.0 145.348785872 95% => More unique words wanted.
Unique words percentage: 0.463087248322 0.540411800872 86% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
syllable_count: 459.9 419.366225166 110% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 4.0 3.25607064018 123% => OK
Article: 7.0 8.23620309051 85% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 2.0 2.5761589404 78% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 12.0 13.0662251656 92% => OK
Sentence length: 24.0 21.2450331126 113% => OK
Sentence length SD: 40.203648259 49.2860985944 82% => OK
Chars per sentence: 121.333333333 110.228320801 110% => OK
Words per sentence: 24.8333333333 21.698381199 114% => OK
Discourse Markers: 7.5 7.06452816374 106% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 0.0 4.19205298013 0% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 3.0 4.33554083885 69% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 3.0 4.45695364238 67% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 6.0 4.27373068433 140% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.481337691237 0.272083759551 177% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.223575742651 0.0996497079465 224% => Sentence topic similarity is high.
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0599435328992 0.0662205650399 91% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.313248641178 0.162205337803 193% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0696405091234 0.0443174109184 157% => OK
automated_readability_index: 14.0 13.3589403974 105% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 55.58 53.8541721854 103% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 11.5 11.0289183223 104% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 11.38 12.2367328918 93% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 7.79 8.42419426049 92% => OK
difficult_words: 56.0 63.6247240618 88% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 11.5 10.7273730684 107% => OK
gunning_fog: 11.6 10.498013245 110% => OK
text_standard: 12.0 11.2008830022 107% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 73.3333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 22.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.