The author of the reading passage explores three theories that cast doubt on whether the old fossil structures dated back to 200 million years ago found in Arizona were created by bees or not. However, the professor points out that none of the theory is convincing with three reasons as support.
To begin with, the reading passage argues that the earliest preserved fossil of actual bees is 100 million years old, which is only half as old as the fossilized structures discovered in Arizona, so it is unlikely that fossil structures were built by bees since bees appeared much later than the fossil structures. However, the professor challenges this point by explaining that no fossils of actual bees found does not mean bees did not exist; instead, there is a high possibility that bees did exist as early as 200 million years ago. Nonetheless, during that period, there were very few trees that could produce a special liquid to preserve the body of dead bees, leading to the fact that no actual bee fossils found could date back to that early.
Secondly, the reading passage claims that bees and flowering plants have long evolved a close and mutually dependent relationship, that one could hardly live without the other. Therefore, since flowering plants first appeared on Earth 125 million years ago, it indicates that bees should appear around that time period, which is so far away from the time that the fossil structures appeared - 200 million years ago - that it makes no sense to think that the fossil structures could be built by bees. However, the professor refutes the argument and states that bees could appear earlier than flowering plants since bees may not have the heavy dependency on flowering plants when they first appeared. According to the revolutionary theory, animals have the ability to evolve and adapt to the environment, so before flowing plants appeared, bees could feed on non flowering plants like ferns or pine trees. Therefore, this argument could not be a proof that bees were not existing in 200 million years ago.
Thirdly, although the fossil structures lack some details of spiral patterned caps that bees use to close the chambers, there is chemical evidence in the fossil structures showing that they are the result of bees making chambers. Modern bees will produce a water proof material while making chambers, and this same material was found in the fossils as well, which indicates that the fossil structures were made while bees were making chambers.
Based on the above three specific points provided by the professor, she thinks that none of the theory is convincing, and the fossil structures found in Arizona were very likely to be created by bees.
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 7, column 94, Rule ID: USE_TO_VERB
Message: Did you mean 'used'?
...ails of spiral patterned caps that bees use to close the chambers, there is chemica...
Line 7, column 258, Rule ID: EN_COMPOUNDS
Message: This word is normally spelled as one.
...ng chambers. Modern bees will produce a water proof material while making chambers, and thi...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
first, however, if, may, nonetheless, second, secondly, so, therefore, third, thirdly, well, while, to begin with
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 20.0 10.4613686534 191% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 10.0 5.04856512141 198% => OK
Conjunction : 8.0 7.30242825607 110% => OK
Relative clauses : 27.0 12.0772626932 224% => Less relative clauses wanted (maybe 'which' is over used).
Pronoun: 32.0 22.412803532 143% => Less pronouns wanted
Preposition: 49.0 30.3222958057 162% => OK
Nominalization: 4.0 5.01324503311 80% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 2258.0 1373.03311258 164% => OK
No of words: 452.0 270.72406181 167% => Less content wanted.
Chars per words: 4.99557522124 5.08290768461 98% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.61088837703 4.04702891845 114% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.39321412533 2.5805825403 93% => OK
Unique words: 206.0 145.348785872 142% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.455752212389 0.540411800872 84% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
syllable_count: 670.5 419.366225166 160% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 4.0 3.25607064018 123% => OK
Article: 6.0 8.23620309051 73% => OK
Subordination: 2.0 1.25165562914 160% => OK
Conjunction: 2.0 1.51434878587 132% => OK
Preposition: 4.0 2.5761589404 155% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 13.0 13.0662251656 99% => OK
Sentence length: 34.0 21.2450331126 160% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively long.
Sentence length SD: 61.6660216396 49.2860985944 125% => OK
Chars per sentence: 173.692307692 110.228320801 158% => OK
Words per sentence: 34.7692307692 21.698381199 160% => OK
Discourse Markers: 8.69230769231 7.06452816374 123% => OK
Paragraphs: 5.0 4.09492273731 122% => OK
Language errors: 2.0 4.19205298013 48% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 4.0 4.33554083885 92% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 8.0 4.45695364238 179% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 1.0 4.27373068433 23% => More facts, knowledge or examples wanted.
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.09069476262 0.272083759551 33% => The similarity between the topic and the content is low.
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0432519224867 0.0996497079465 43% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0200542603967 0.0662205650399 30% => Sentences are similar to each other.
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.0520672204374 0.162205337803 32% => Maybe some paragraphs are off the topic.
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0263897485028 0.0443174109184 60% => OK
automated_readability_index: 19.5 13.3589403974 146% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 45.43 53.8541721854 84% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 5.55761589404 158% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 15.4 11.0289183223 140% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 12.31 12.2367328918 101% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.4 8.42419426049 100% => OK
difficult_words: 88.0 63.6247240618 138% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 18.5 10.7273730684 172% => OK
gunning_fog: 15.6 10.498013245 149% => OK
text_standard: 16.0 11.2008830022 143% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Write the essay in 20 minutes.
Rates: 73.3333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 22.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.