Explain how the lecturer’s claims give a concrete example of climate change’s effect on culture.Climate change hasn't always been seen as such a major factor in how we've progressed, how culture has developed. But more and more, we're finding that it

Speaking topics in text

Explain how the lecturer’s claims give a concrete example of climate change’s effect on culture.

Climate change hasn't always been seen as such a major factor in how we've progressed, how culture has developed. But more and more, we're finding that it does play a major role.

Let’s… uhh, let’s take the example of Egypt. The country today is harshly divided between the Sahara DESERT, where basically nothing grows, and the area around the Nile River Valley, which is still one of the… uh, one of the most fertile places on the whole planet.

But the thing is, we're now discovering that the landscape of Egypt was not always divided in that way.

Instead, until the fourth millennium BCE, the desert of Egypt was actually a rich, prosperous area of fields and… and farmable meadows. There were societies living away from the Nile, successfully farming... er... getting by. Um, in a place that would later be completely uninhabitable.

But then of course the climate changed, and the Sahara Desert formed. That meant people were FORCED TO MOVE to the Nile Valley to survive, because there were no more fields to cultivate or, or… uhh, animals to hunt.

So, right. You can imagine that their culture HAD to adapt, as they moved to a new area, a new climate. But it doesn't stop there. The Nile Valley was already settled.

So these newcomers FLEEING the desert, they evidently fought the people already living in the valley, and we see from that the construction of these giant…defensive WALLS for the first time in history.

So, right, people JOINED TOGETHER behind those walls and formed cities to protect themselves. This was a large interaction between communities, deeply affecting the local culture. The changing landscape was at the heart of that change.

Speaking recording
Average: 7 (1 vote)
Speaking category
Speakings by the user


Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments

Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 487.0 592.248995984 82% => Need more words or more difficult words.
No of words: 123.0 155.574297189 79% => More words wanted. You may: choose simpler words or speak faster or remove hesitations or remove long pauses, and fully use the time, do NOT save one or two seconds.
Chars per words: 3.9593495935 3.80514564318 104% => OK
Fourth root words length: 3.33024571262 3.525876923 94% => OK
Word Length SD: 1.96058052621 1.79077849142 109% => OK
Unique words: 81.0 93.7148594378 86% => More unique words wanted.
Unique words percentage: 0.658536585366 0.604071249207 109% => OK
Syllable count: 149.4 185.844578313 80% => OK
Avg_syllables_per_word: 1.2 1.19417670683 100% => OK

Performance on coherence:
Topic speech coherence ratio: 0.00580114963943 0.0650381309087 9% => It may have issues on recording quality or the content is not so closely related to content.

Acoustic performance on paragraphs:
How many acoustic paragraphs: 1.0 4.35341365462 23% => Need more acoustic paragraphs.
Average paragraph length: 123.0 68.503853103 180% => OK
STD paragraph length: 0.0 21.3332995233 0% => OK
Average paragraph duration: 44.02 25.9943957902 169% => OK
STD paragraph duration: 0.0 7.84667146824 0% => The duration of acoustic paragraphs keeps same.

Acoustic performance on sentences:
How many acoustic sentences: 35.0 42.0642570281 83% => OK
Average acoustic sentence length: 3.51428571429 4.02192344571 87% => OK
STD acoustic sentence length: 2.32220866014 3.1217529195 74% => OK
Average acoustic sentences duration: 1.208 1.45093177766 83% => OK
STD acoustic sentences duration: 0.769982560099 0.99851816184 77% => OK

Acoustic performance on acoustic silence:(An acoustic silence means a little pause between two or more words)
How many acoustic silence: 29.0 39.0421686747 74% => OK
Total acoustic silence duration: 4.05 7.12997991968 57% => OK
Average acoustic silence duration: 0.139655172414 0.185688545393 75% => Maybe the speech rate is too fast.
STD acoustic silence duration: 0.0996020619722 0.155154303396 64% => OK

Acoustic performance on acoustic words:
Total word duration: 35.46 47.1480722892 75% => Need to talk more.
Average word duration: 0.288292682927 0.305395592593 94% => OK
STD word duration: 0.136636169413 0.189427763521 72% => OK

Disfluencies: like hesitations, or 'ehn' or taking a long time to pronounce a word:
How many disfluencies: 1.0 7.94979919679 13% => Good job, the lower, the better.
Total_disfluencies_duration: 0.77 6.2937751004 12% => Good job. The lower, the better.
Total acoustic noise duration: 2.86 3.39508032129 84% => OK

Acoustic rates:
Total speech duration: 44.02 59.7592369478 74% => Talk more. Do not save time. People can talk 4-5 words in one second.
Compare to expected duration: 0.733666666667 0.995987282463 74% => Some seconds left. Need to talk more.
Rate of silence: 0.658791458428 0.656000678711 100% => OK
Rate of speech: 2.79418446161 2.60215298798 107% => OK
Rate of speech by unique words: 1.84007269423 1.56821927147 117% => OK
Rate of word duration by unique words: 2.28426395939 1.99336655568 115% => OK
Average articulation rates: 0.398162674797 0.317803793328 125% => OK


Rates: 70.0 out of 100
Scores by speech e-grader: 21.0 Out of 30
Note: the speech e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas.