Using points and examples form the talk, explain the concept of diffusion.
1. Now, let's talk about a particular cultural process—diffusion.
2. Since the beginning of human history, diverse culture, have taken advantage of one another's innovations when they have come into contact.
3. Diffusion is the process whereby something cultural like a custom, a type of food or an invention is spread from one group to another or from one society to another.
4. One group adopts a cultural item or, more selectively, just part of cultural item of another group, you see.
5. Now diffusion can occur through a variety of ways, military conquest or tourism or even something like the influence of satellite TV shows around the world.
6. For example, take something like reading a modern newspaper here in the US.
7. Have you ever thought about where the letters, the characters on the page are reading?
8. Where they came from?
9. They were borrowed from another culture may centuries ago.
10. Then the printing of the words, well, that process was invented in Germany.
11. And finally the paper itself, paper was invented in China.
12. These innovations from all over the world were shared across cultures overtime and so today we have newspaper in the US.
13. So the process of diffusion might take place over long distances and over long periods of time.
14. Now, I am not saying that diffusion happens easily.
15. As I mentioned, sometimes it is selective, For instance, many people in the US have accepted the practice of acupuncture, the Chinese practice of using needles to cure a disease or relieve pain.
16. So lots of people in the US have realized that acupuncture is effective.
17. But few of them fully understand or have committed themselves to the philosophy behind acupuncture.
18. Cultures tend to resist ideas which seem too foreign, too different from their own beliefs and values.
19. But the ideas which aren't perceived as too different are often incorporated, absorbed, diffused into their culture.
20. So the practice of acupuncture has been absorbed into US culture, but not the philosophies of Chinese medicine.
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Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 761.0 578.828451883 131% => OK
No of words: 193.0 151.265690377 128% => OK
Chars per words: 3.94300518135 3.82278263415 103% => OK
Fourth root words length: 3.72725689877 3.50058242952 106% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.05415420991 1.80425224433 114% => OK
Unique words: 112.0 92.4686192469 121% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.580310880829 0.61298525976 95% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
Syllable count: 239.4 182.283891213 131% => OK
Avg_syllables_per_word: 1.2 1.20543933054 100% => OK
Performance on coherence:
Topic speech coherence ratio: 0.0794946412095 0.0839705835288 95% => OK
Acoustic performance on paragraphs:
How many acoustic paragraphs: 1.0 4.47071129707 22% => Need more acoustic paragraphs.
Average paragraph length: 193.0 65.8948926009 293% => The average paragraph length is high.
STD paragraph length: 0.0 19.7758100068 0% => OK
Average paragraph duration: 60.14 25.5208953607 236% => Need to control the rhythm of the speech
STD paragraph duration: 0.0 7.49434385956 0% => The duration of acoustic paragraphs keeps same.
Acoustic performance on sentences:
How many acoustic sentences: 33.0 42.9832635983 77% => OK
Average acoustic sentence length: 5.84848484848 3.78147595546 155% => OK
STD acoustic sentence length: 4.49323540124 2.94285465224 153% => OK
Average acoustic sentences duration: 1.78393939394 1.39386743896 128% => OK
STD acoustic sentences duration: 1.11378399351 0.967747756167 115% => OK
Acoustic performance on acoustic silence:(An acoustic silence means a little pause between two or more words)
How many acoustic silence: 33.0 40.4456066946 82% => OK
Total acoustic silence duration: 8.6 7.59280334728 113% => OK
Average acoustic silence duration: 0.260606060606 0.19053887516 137% => Maybe the pauses are too long.
STD acoustic silence duration: 0.233847132066 0.157467062838 149% => OK
Acoustic performance on acoustic words:
Total word duration: 47.87 46.3453556485 103% => OK
Average word duration: 0.248031088083 0.308780311121 80% => OK
STD word duration: 0.147849030504 0.201157623399 73% => OK
Disfluencies: like hesitations, or 'ehn' or taking a long time to pronounce a word:
How many disfluencies: 6.0 8.09623430962 74% => OK
Total_disfluencies_duration: 4.27 6.56692468619 65% => OK
Total acoustic noise duration: 1.38 3.53066945607 39% => OK
Total speech duration: 60.14 59.5455230126 101% => OK
Compare to expected duration: 1.00233333333 0.992425383543 101% => OK
Rate of silence: 0.54871965414 0.681803438845 80% => OK
Rate of speech: 3.20917858331 2.53813033465 126% => OK
Rate of speech by unique words: 1.86232125042 1.55221717717 120% => OK
Rate of word duration by unique words: 2.33966993942 1.99939622689 117% => OK
Average articulation rates: 0.255327430052 0.309613076454 82% => OK
Rates: 81.6666666667 out of 100
Scores by speech e-grader: 24.5 Out of 30
Note: the speech e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas.