In 1912 a bookseller named Wilfrid M. Voynich acquired a beautifully illustrated handwritten book (manuscript) written on vellum (vellum is a material that was used for writing before the introduction of paper). The "Voynich manuscript," as it became known, resembles manuscripts written in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. However, it is written in a completely unknown script. To date, no one has been able to decode the script and understand the book’s content. Several theories have been proposed to explain the origin of the Voynich manuscript. One theory is that the manuscript is a genuine work on some scientific or magical subject composed in a complex secret code. Anthony Ascham, a sixteenth-century physician and botanist, has been identified as a possible author, since many plant illustrations in the Voynich manuscript are quite similar to those in Ascham’s book on medicinal plants, A Little Herbal, published in 1550. According to some other theories, the manuscript is really a fake and its text has no real meaning. For example, it has been proposed the manuscript was created by Edward Kelley, a sixteenth-century personality who extracted money from nobles across Europe by pretending to have magical powers. Kelley may have created the manuscript as a fake magical book to sell to a wealthy noble. He used a made-up alphabet in a completely random order. It looks like a book of magical secrets, but there is no meaningful underlying text. Another theory is that the manuscript is actually a modern fake created by Wilfrid M. Voynich himself. As an antique book dealer, Voynich certainly had the knowledge of what old manuscripts should look like and could have created a fake one. Perhaps Voynich’s plan was to sell the fake as a mysterious old book if he received an attractive offer
In these set of materials, the reading proposes three persons to explain the origin of the Voynich manuscript, which is a mysthery coded manuscript from the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries, but the professor disagrees. He refutes each author's sources.
Initially, the reading states that the Voynich manuscript is as simillar as some scientific or magical sobject regarding Anthony Aschman's works. The author claims that these both manuscript contain secret code. On the other hand, the professor explains that Aschman was a ordinary scientists and his works, like Herbal, consists of other references and common materials, not as weird code.
Furthermore, the reading suggests that Edward Kelley has been made this fake manuscript, as he had deceived rich Eropean before. On the contrary, the professor argues that even though Kelley was a criminal person, he did not need to put such a huge efforts for making precise manuscript to mislead easy-going people back in 16th century.
Finally, the reading proposes that Voynich made the fake manuscript by himself in order to sell it to rich people. Nevertheless, the professor refutes this notion by saying that scientists have observed ink of the manuscript by advanced techniques and dated the manuscript 4000 years, so Voynich has not deceived people.
- Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by external appearances. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 27
- TPO-48 - Integrated Writing Task In recent years, many frog species around the world have declined in numbers or even gone extinct due to changes in their environment. These population declines and extinctions have serious consequences for the ecosystems 73
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- TOEFL T P O 19 Integrated Writing Task 85
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 3, column 271, Rule ID: EN_A_VS_AN
Message: Use 'an' instead of 'a' if the following word starts with a vowel sound, e.g. 'an article', 'an hour'
...the professor explains that Aschman was a ordinary scientists and his works, like...
Line 5, column 250, Rule ID: A_PLURAL
Message: Don't use indefinite articles with plural words. Did you mean 'effort'?
...son, he did not need to put such a huge efforts for making precise manuscript to mislea...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
but, finally, furthermore, if, nevertheless, regarding, so, on the contrary, on the other hand
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 5.0 10.4613686534 48% => More to be verbs wanted.
Auxiliary verbs: 1.0 5.04856512141 20% => OK
Conjunction : 6.0 7.30242825607 82% => OK
Relative clauses : 8.0 12.0772626932 66% => OK
Pronoun: 17.0 22.412803532 76% => OK
Preposition: 21.0 30.3222958057 69% => OK
Nominalization: 0.0 5.01324503311 0% => More nominalization wanted.
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1108.0 1373.03311258 81% => OK
No of words: 206.0 270.72406181 76% => More content wanted.
Chars per words: 5.3786407767 5.08290768461 106% => OK
Fourth root words length: 3.78849575616 4.04702891845 94% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.72782708871 2.5805825403 106% => OK
Unique words: 125.0 145.348785872 86% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.606796116505 0.540411800872 112% => OK
syllable_count: 324.0 419.366225166 77% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.55342163355 103% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 2.0 3.25607064018 61% => OK
Interrogative: 0.0 0.116997792494 0% => OK
Article: 8.0 8.23620309051 97% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 1.0 1.51434878587 66% => OK
Preposition: 4.0 2.5761589404 155% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 9.0 13.0662251656 69% => OK
Sentence length: 22.0 21.2450331126 104% => OK
Sentence length SD: 61.9480068731 49.2860985944 126% => OK
Chars per sentence: 123.111111111 110.228320801 112% => OK
Words per sentence: 22.8888888889 21.698381199 105% => OK
Discourse Markers: 10.4444444444 7.06452816374 148% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 2.0 4.19205298013 48% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 3.0 4.33554083885 69% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 3.0 4.45695364238 67% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 3.0 4.27373068433 70% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.166386308934 0.272083759551 61% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0710779286282 0.0996497079465 71% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0410908816419 0.0662205650399 62% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.105733899398 0.162205337803 65% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0262964002826 0.0443174109184 59% => OK
automated_readability_index: 15.4 13.3589403974 115% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 49.15 53.8541721854 91% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 11.9 11.0289183223 108% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 14.22 12.2367328918 116% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 9.25 8.42419426049 110% => OK
difficult_words: 59.0 63.6247240618 93% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 10.5 10.7273730684 98% => OK
gunning_fog: 10.8 10.498013245 103% => OK
text_standard: 11.0 11.2008830022 98% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 70.0 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 21.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.
was a ordinary scientists
was an ordinary scientist
Edward Kelley has been made this fake manuscript
Edward Kelley has made this fake manuscripts
such a huge efforts
such a huge effort
have observed ink of the manuscript
have observed the ink of the manuscript
Sentence: In these set of materials, the reading proposes three persons to explain the origin of the Voynich manuscript, which is a mysthery coded manuscript from the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries, but the professor disagrees.
Error: mysthery Suggestion: mystery
Sentence: Initially, the reading states that the Voynich manuscript is as simillar as some scientific or magical sobject regarding Anthony Aschman's works.
Error: sobject Suggestion: subject
Error: simillar Suggestion: similar
Sentence: On the contrary, the professor argues that even though Kelley was a criminal person, he did not need to put such a huge efforts for making precise manuscript to mislead easy-going people back in 16th century.
Error: easy-going Suggestion: easygoing
No. of Grammatical Errors: 4 2
No. of Spelling Errors: 4 2
No. of Words: 206 //need more content. Read sample essays from ETS:
Attribute Value Ideal
Final score: 20 in 30
Category: Satisfactory Excellent
No. of Grammatical Errors: 4 2
No. of Spelling Errors: 4 2
No. of Sentences: 9 12
No. of Words: 206 250
No. of Characters: 1074 1200
No. of Different Words: 125 150
Fourth Root of Number of Words: 3.788 4.2
Average Word Length: 5.214 4.6
Word Length SD: 2.63 2.4
No. of Words greater than 5 chars: 90 80
No. of Words greater than 6 chars: 70 60
No. of Words greater than 7 chars: 45 40
No. of Words greater than 8 chars: 30 20
Use of Passive Voice (%): 0 0
Avg. Sentence Length: 22.889 21.0
Sentence Length SD: 10.027 7.5
Use of Discourse Markers (%): 0.778 0.12
Sentence-Text Coherence: 0.419 0.35
Sentence-Para Coherence: 0.665 0.50
Sentence-Sentence Coherence: 0.125 0.07
Number of Paragraphs: 4 4