In 1938 an archaeologist in Iraq acquired a set of clay jars that had been excavated two years earlier by villagers constructing a railroad line. The vessel was about 2,200 years old. Each clay jay contained a copper cylinder surrounding an iron rod. The archaeologist proposed that vessel were ancient electric batteries and even demonstrated that they can produce a small electric current when filled with some liquids. However, it is not likely that the vessels were actually used as electric batteries in ancient times. First of all, if the vessels were used as batteries, they would probably have been attached to some electricity conductors such as metal wires. But there is no evidence that any metal wires were located near the vessels. All that has been excavated are the vessels themselves. Second, the copper cylinders inside the jars look exactly like copper cylinders discovered in the ruins of Seleucia, an ancient city located nearby. We know that the copper cylinders from Seleucia were used for holding scrolls of sacred texts, not for generating electricity. Since the cylinders found with the jars have the same shape, it is very likely they were used for holding scrolls as well. That no scrolls were found inside the jars can be explained by the fact that the scrolls simply disintegrated over the centuries. Finally, what could ancient people have done with the electricity that the vessels were supposed to have generated? They had no devices that replied on electricity. As batteries, the vessels would have been completely useless to them
In these set of materials, the reading states that based on a discovery of clay jars in Iraq, there is possibility that ancient people were not able to produce electric batteries and provides three reasons of support. On the contrary, the professor refutes each author's reasons.
Initially, the reading explains that since no metal wires have been found in surrounding areas which are required for making electricity, ancient people were not aware of the benefits of utilizing batteries. On the other hand, the professor mentions that there is a strong chance that some existence metal wires have been lost because local people who found the vessels were not expert archeologists.
In addition, the reading states that copper cylinder are similar to copper cylinder of Seleucia which were used for holding scrolls of sacred texts. In contrast, the professor argues that even though at first copper cylinder could be used as holding scrolls, it would not disprove that ancient people combined iron and water in order to utilize batteries' energy.
Last but not the least, the reading claims that there are no evidences of ancient devices that were required electricity as a source of energy. However, the professor disagrees with this notion and suggests that ancient people could use electricity as either a magical power or a healing device to release muscles.
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- TOEFL T P O 19 Integrated Writing Task 85
Transition Words or Phrases used:
but, first, however, so, in addition, in contrast, on the contrary, on the other hand
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 13.0 10.4613686534 124% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 3.0 5.04856512141 59% => OK
Conjunction : 5.0 7.30242825607 68% => OK
Relative clauses : 14.0 12.0772626932 116% => OK
Pronoun: 14.0 22.412803532 62% => OK
Preposition: 25.0 30.3222958057 82% => OK
Nominalization: 2.0 5.01324503311 40% => More nominalization wanted.
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1151.0 1373.03311258 84% => OK
No of words: 221.0 270.72406181 82% => More content wanted.
Chars per words: 5.20814479638 5.08290768461 102% => OK
Fourth root words length: 3.85565412703 4.04702891845 95% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.51454278369 2.5805825403 97% => OK
Unique words: 126.0 145.348785872 87% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.570135746606 0.540411800872 106% => OK
syllable_count: 361.8 419.366225166 86% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.55342163355 103% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 1.0 3.25607064018 31% => OK
Interrogative: 0.0 0.116997792494 0% => OK
Article: 8.0 8.23620309051 97% => OK
Subordination: 0.0 1.25165562914 0% => More adverbial clause wanted.
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 5.0 2.5761589404 194% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 8.0 13.0662251656 61% => OK
Sentence length: 27.0 21.2450331126 127% => OK
Sentence length SD: 49.0044640824 49.2860985944 99% => OK
Chars per sentence: 143.875 110.228320801 131% => OK
Words per sentence: 27.625 21.698381199 127% => OK
Discourse Markers: 10.625 7.06452816374 150% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 0.0 4.19205298013 0% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 3.0 4.33554083885 69% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 3.0 4.45695364238 67% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 2.0 4.27373068433 47% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.0905205311149 0.272083759551 33% => The similarity between the topic and the content is low.
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0407529208722 0.0996497079465 41% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.031125438323 0.0662205650399 47% => Sentences are similar to each other.
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.0563026339431 0.162205337803 35% => Maybe some paragraphs are off the topic.
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.03845852274 0.0443174109184 87% => OK
automated_readability_index: 16.9 13.3589403974 127% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 44.07 53.8541721854 82% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 5.55761589404 158% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 13.8 11.0289183223 125% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 13.23 12.2367328918 108% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 9.05 8.42419426049 107% => OK
difficult_words: 57.0 63.6247240618 90% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 14.0 10.7273730684 131% => OK
gunning_fog: 12.8 10.498013245 122% => OK
text_standard: 14.0 11.2008830022 125% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 76.6666666667 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 23.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.
there is possibility that
there is a/the possibility that
copper cylinder are similar to copper cylinder of Seleucia which were used
copper cylinders are similar to copper cylinders of Seleucia which were used
are no evidences of ancient devices that were required electricity as a source of energy
are no evidences of ancient devices that require electricity as a source of energy
No. of Grammatical Errors: 3 2
Attribute Value Ideal
Final score: 23 in 30
Category: Good Excellent
No. of Grammatical Errors: 3 2
No. of Spelling Errors: 0 2
No. of Sentences: 8 12
No. of Words: 221 250
No. of Characters: 1119 1200
No. of Different Words: 124 150
Fourth Root of Number of Words: 3.856 4.2
Average Word Length: 5.063 4.6
Word Length SD: 2.423 2.4
No. of Words greater than 5 chars: 90 80
No. of Words greater than 6 chars: 66 60
No. of Words greater than 7 chars: 38 40
No. of Words greater than 8 chars: 20 20
Use of Passive Voice (%): 0 0
Avg. Sentence Length: 27.625 21.0
Sentence Length SD: 8.276 7.5
Use of Discourse Markers (%): 0.75 0.12
Sentence-Text Coherence: 0.443 0.35
Sentence-Para Coherence: 0.736 0.50
Sentence-Sentence Coherence: 0.085 0.07
Number of Paragraphs: 4 4