At the end of the Triassic period 200 million years ago, there was a mass-extinction event that caused the extinction of more than half of all living species. It was this extinction event that allowed dinosaurs to become the dominant species for the next 145 million years. We do not know exactly what happened that eliminated so many species in a relatively short period of time, but there are several possible explanations. One theory involves the decline of sea levels. Near the end of the Triassic period, sea levels were fluctuating. When sea levels fall, the habitats for ocean populations that live in the shallows and land species that live on the coast are destroyed. The destruction of coastal and shallow-ocean species would have had a profound effect on food chains worldwide, leading to mass extinctions. Another theory involves massive climate cooling. The end of the Triassic period was marked by widespread volcanic activity. The volcanoes released large amounts of sulfur dioxide (S02). A rise in atmospheric S02 is known to cause a lowering in global temperatures. Such climate change could have devastated many species and led to the extinctions. The third theory involves an asteroid strike. Asteroids (objects from outer space) occasionally collide with Earth. When an asteroid hits Earth’s surface, it often displaces large amounts of soil and crushed rock, leaving behind a depression, or crater. The displaced debris is thrown up into the atmosphere where it can block out sunlight for many months or even a few years. A sufficiently massive asteroid impact at the end of the Triassic period may have blocked sunlight long enough for most plants to die and many animal species to then starve.
Recently, there was a ton of debate about the real cause of mass extinction at the end of the Triassic period. More specifically, about the passage, the writer puts forth the idea that there are three possible theories can explain the cause of this extinction. In the listening passage, the lecturer is quick to point out there are some serious flaws in the writer's claims. The professor believes that none of the reading passage's theories are a good explanation, and addresses, in detail the trouble with each point made in the reading text.
First and foremost, the author of the reading passage states that the first theory is the decline of sea levels. Some professionals in the same field, however, stand in firm opposition to this claim. In the listening, such as the professor states that the coastal and shallow-ocean species are capable of adaptation in any environmental change. She goes on to say that the decrease in sea levels was gradual and not sudden to cause a huge impact.
One group of scholars, represented by the writer, thinks that the decline of the global temperature is the second idea. Of course, though, not all experts in this field believe this is correct. Again, the professor specifically addresses this point when she says that the excess Sulfur dioxide would be cleared in the atmosphere. Furthermore, sulfur dioxide could react with rainwater and return to the earth without causing any increase in temperature.
Finally, the author wraps his argument by positing that a massive asteroid might hit the earth's surface and caused the extinction. Not surprisingly, the lecturer takes this issue with his claim by contending that the craters that found was 12 million years before a massive extinction.
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- Do you agree or disagree with the following statement The knowledge we gain from personal experiences is more valuable than the knowledge we gain from books Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer Do not use memorized examples 60
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 11, column 279, Rule ID: WHITESPACE_RULE
Message: Possible typo: you repeated a whitespace
...this point when she says that the excess Sulfur dioxide would be cleared in the a...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
finally, first, furthermore, however, if, second, so, of course, such as
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 12.0 10.4613686534 115% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 4.0 5.04856512141 79% => OK
Conjunction : 6.0 7.30242825607 82% => OK
Relative clauses : 11.0 12.0772626932 91% => OK
Pronoun: 20.0 22.412803532 89% => OK
Preposition: 41.0 30.3222958057 135% => OK
Nominalization: 8.0 5.01324503311 160% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1463.0 1373.03311258 107% => OK
No of words: 288.0 270.72406181 106% => OK
Chars per words: 5.07986111111 5.08290768461 100% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.11953428781 4.04702891845 102% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.69772673792 2.5805825403 105% => OK
Unique words: 163.0 145.348785872 112% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.565972222222 0.540411800872 105% => OK
syllable_count: 437.4 419.366225166 104% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 1.0 3.25607064018 31% => OK
Article: 7.0 8.23620309051 85% => OK
Subordination: 0.0 1.25165562914 0% => More adverbial clause wanted.
Conjunction: 1.0 1.51434878587 66% => OK
Preposition: 5.0 2.5761589404 194% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 14.0 13.0662251656 107% => OK
Sentence length: 20.0 21.2450331126 94% => OK
Sentence length SD: 25.4939968924 49.2860985944 52% => The essay contains lots of sentences with the similar length. More sentence varieties wanted.
Chars per sentence: 104.5 110.228320801 95% => OK
Words per sentence: 20.5714285714 21.698381199 95% => OK
Discourse Markers: 5.14285714286 7.06452816374 73% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 1.0 4.19205298013 24% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 5.0 4.33554083885 115% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 3.0 4.45695364238 67% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 6.0 4.27373068433 140% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.167466241762 0.272083759551 62% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0545360934169 0.0996497079465 55% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0828560425045 0.0662205650399 125% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.088995545976 0.162205337803 55% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0421388923234 0.0443174109184 95% => OK
automated_readability_index: 12.8 13.3589403974 96% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 59.64 53.8541721854 111% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 9.9 11.0289183223 90% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 12.18 12.2367328918 100% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.58 8.42419426049 102% => OK
difficult_words: 72.0 63.6247240618 113% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 10.5 10.7273730684 98% => OK
gunning_fog: 10.0 10.498013245 95% => OK
text_standard: 10.0 11.2008830022 89% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 80.0 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 24.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.