First, the issue of pterosaur metabolism. Some recently discovered pterosaur fossils indicate that pterosaurs had a dense, hair -like covering, somewhat similar to fur. Hair or fur covering is typical of warm-blooded animals because those animals need to maintain a high body temperature when external conditions are cold. So if the metabolism of pterosaurs was more like that of warm-blooded animals and so faster than the reading suggests, then it would have supplied them with the energy needed for powered flight.
Second, the idea that large pterosaurs couldn't use powered flight because they were too heavy. We now know that pterosaurs had anatomical features that made them unusually light for their size. For example, the bones of pterosaurs were hollow instead of solid. Hollow, light -weight bones would have kept the pterosaurs weight low despite their large body frames. The pterosaurs' weight was probably low enough to allow t hem to keep themselves airborne by flapping their wings.
Third, takeoff would indeed be a problem for pterosaurs if they took off the way birds do. But there are important differences between birds and pterosaurs. Birds only use their hind limbs, their leg s, for walking on the ground. So they only have two limbs to push off from when they launch. But pterosaurs walked on all four limbs while on the ground. There are modern flying animals that walk on all four limbs. Bats, for example. And they use all four limbs to push off the ground, not just the back ones. Studies indicate that even the largest pterosaurs would have had no trouble using all four limbs to run fast enough or jump high enough to launch themselves into the air.
The reading states that Pterosaurs, an ancient group of reptiles living in the dinosaurs' era, were not able to fly like today's bird and provides three points to support it. However, the professor explains that there is strong evidence that proves Pterosaurs could fly and refutes each of the author's reasons.
First, that Pterosaurs were cold-blooded and would not be able to generate enough energy to fly, as the reading claims, is rejected in the lecture. The lecturer says that fossil evidence of Pterosaurs shows that they had dense hair, a common feature of warm-blooded animals, for maintaining their body temperature and could produce the required metabolism they needed to fly. She also states that these fossils offer valuable support that Pterosaurs had enough energy and were able to fly.
Second, based on the passage, Pterosaurs were too heavy to flap their wings. In contrast, the professor points out that Pterosaurs' bone features were significant, and they could cope with the size and weight problem. According to the professor, Pterosaurs' bones were hollow, light bones instead of solid bones. As a result, they needed low energy to keep flapping their wing in the air.
Third, the author posits that Pterosaurs could not take off from the ground due to their back leg structures. The professor casts doubt on this point by explaining that modern birds are different in flying mechanisms from Pterosaurs. Although the birds have two legs and can walk on them, Pterosaurs had four legs and walked on four legs. Pterosaurs, therefore, had no a serious problem to run, jump and lunch themselves to the air.
- It s perfectly possible that the nests found inside the fossilized trees were made by bees 200 million years ago The arguments used by the skeptics are not convincing First it s true we have no fossil remains of actual bees that date to 200 million years 75
- Question Do you agree or disagree with the following statement Would you prefer to take courses taught by professors with whom you have already had other classes during your past years of study or would you prefer to take courses with professors whose cla 76
- First the issue of pterosaur metabolism Some recently discovered pterosaur fossils indicate that pterosaurs had a dense hair like covering somewhat similar to fur Hair or fur covering is typical of warm blooded animals because those animals need to mainta 81
- Question Nowadays many high schools and universities require students to work on projects in groups and all members of the group receive the same grade mark on the project Do you agree or disagree that giving every member of a group the same grade is a go 60
- Question Imagine that you are in a classroom or a meeting The teacher or the meeting leader says something incorrect In your opinion which of the following is the best thing to do Interrupt and correct the mistake right away Wait until the class or meetin 71
Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 1, column 80, Rule ID: POSSESIVE_APOSTROPHE
Message: Possible typo: apostrophe is missing. Did you mean 'dinosaurs'' or 'dinosaur's'?
Suggestion: dinosaurs'; dinosaur's
...ancient group of reptiles living in the dinosaurs era, were not able to fly like todays b...
Line 7, column 367, Rule ID: NOW
Message: Did you mean 'now' (=at this moment) instead of 'no' (negation)?
...n four legs. Pterosaurs, therefore, had no a serious problem to run, jump and lunc...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, first, however, if, second, so, therefore, third, in contrast, as a result
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 10.0 10.4613686534 96% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 6.0 5.04856512141 119% => OK
Conjunction : 10.0 7.30242825607 137% => OK
Relative clauses : 11.0 12.0772626932 91% => OK
Pronoun: 25.0 22.412803532 112% => OK
Preposition: 33.0 30.3222958057 109% => OK
Nominalization: 2.0 5.01324503311 40% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1363.0 1373.03311258 99% => OK
No of words: 268.0 270.72406181 99% => OK
Chars per words: 5.08582089552 5.08290768461 100% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.04607285448 4.04702891845 100% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.53523565058 2.5805825403 98% => OK
Unique words: 157.0 145.348785872 108% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.585820895522 0.540411800872 108% => OK
syllable_count: 395.1 419.366225166 94% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 3.0 3.25607064018 92% => OK
Article: 8.0 8.23620309051 97% => OK
Subordination: 3.0 1.25165562914 240% => Less adverbial clause wanted.
Conjunction: 1.0 1.51434878587 66% => OK
Preposition: 2.0 2.5761589404 78% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 13.0 13.0662251656 99% => OK
Sentence length: 20.0 21.2450331126 94% => OK
Sentence length SD: 40.3439355554 49.2860985944 82% => OK
Chars per sentence: 104.846153846 110.228320801 95% => OK
Words per sentence: 20.6153846154 21.698381199 95% => OK
Discourse Markers: 6.15384615385 7.06452816374 87% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 2.0 4.19205298013 48% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 4.0 4.33554083885 92% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 4.0 4.45695364238 90% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 5.0 4.27373068433 117% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.194242477686 0.272083759551 71% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0689127500433 0.0996497079465 69% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0509039412088 0.0662205650399 77% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.112507216375 0.162205337803 69% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0650175717688 0.0443174109184 147% => OK
automated_readability_index: 12.9 13.3589403974 97% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 59.64 53.8541721854 111% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 9.9 11.0289183223 90% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 12.24 12.2367328918 100% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.34 8.42419426049 99% => OK
difficult_words: 63.0 63.6247240618 99% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 13.0 10.7273730684 121% => OK
gunning_fog: 10.0 10.498013245 95% => OK
text_standard: 13.0 11.2008830022 116% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 81.6666666667 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 24.5 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.