Hail—pieces of ice that form and fall from clouds instead of snow or rain—has always been a problem for farmers in some areas of the United States. Hail pellets can fall with great force and destroy crops in the field. Over the last few decades, a method of reducing hail, called “cloud seeding,” has been tried. In cloud seeding, the chemical silver iodide is sprayed on storm clouds from an airplane. This makes the clouds produce harmless rain or snow instead of hail. Several pieces of evidence suggest that cloud seeding has been effective in protecting crops from hail.
Experiments in the laboratory support the idea that cloud seeding is effective. Hail usually forms in water vapor that is close to the freezing point. However, when experimenters added silver iodide to cold water vapor in the laboratory, they often observed light snow forming instead of hail pellets.
Evidence from Asia
There is evidence about the effectiveness of cloud seeding from several countries around the world. In some Asian countries, for example, cloud seeding has been successfully used to control precipitation in urban areas. These positive results suggest that cloud seeding should also be effective in protecting fields and farms in the United States.
A few local studies also support the value of cloud seeding. One study conducted in a farming region in the central United States, for example, directly monitored crop damage due to hail. The study found that in an area where cloud seeding was used there was reduced hail damage compared to previous years.
Both the reading passage and the lecture discuss whether cloud seeding is effective in protecting crops from hail. The passage proposes three evidence that support effectiveness of cloud seeding. However, the professor casts doubt on all the evidence mentioned in the passage.
First of all, the passage claims that experiments in the laboratory support the idea that cloud seeding is effective. Since they often observed light snow forming instead of hail pellets when they added silver iodide to cold water vapor in the laboratory. Nevertheless, the professor denies the passage by pointing out that cloud seeding can prevent any precipitation, such as snow and rain, in real life. Thus, it may cause more severe damage like drought to the environment.
Secondly, the passage mentions that cloud seeding has been successfully used to control precipitation in urban areas in some Asian countries. Notwithstanding, the professor counters the passage by arguing that these results can only be reproduced in urban areas. Since the air in urban areas is polluted, it creates favorable condition for cloud seeding to control precipitation. Yet in unpolluted farming area, the effect is unlikely to be reproduced.
Finally, the passage cites local studies conducted in a farming region in the central United States to prove that cloud seeding is effective in reducing hail damage. However, the professor disagrees with the passage. Instead, the professor claims that hail damage not only reduced in the central United State, but also happened in other parts of the United State. Therefore, the decline in hail damage could be caused by natural variation of local weather.
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 3, column 119, Rule ID: SENTENCE_FRAGMENT
Message: “Since” at the beginning of a sentence requires a 2nd clause. Maybe a comma, question or exclamation mark is missing, or the sentence is incomplete and should be joined with the following sentence.
...e idea that cloud seeding is effective. Since they often observed light snow forming ...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, but, finally, first, however, if, may, nevertheless, second, secondly, so, therefore, thus, such as, first of all
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 9.0 10.4613686534 86% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 4.0 5.04856512141 79% => OK
Conjunction : 4.0 7.30242825607 55% => More conjunction wanted.
Relative clauses : 9.0 12.0772626932 75% => More relative clauses wanted.
Pronoun: 13.0 22.412803532 58% => OK
Preposition: 37.0 30.3222958057 122% => OK
Nominalization: 8.0 5.01324503311 160% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1415.0 1373.03311258 103% => OK
No of words: 263.0 270.72406181 97% => OK
Chars per words: 5.38022813688 5.08290768461 106% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.02706775958 4.04702891845 100% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.74926767089 2.5805825403 107% => OK
Unique words: 151.0 145.348785872 104% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.574144486692 0.540411800872 106% => OK
syllable_count: 441.0 419.366225166 105% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.7 1.55342163355 109% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 2.0 3.25607064018 61% => OK
Article: 11.0 8.23620309051 134% => OK
Subordination: 2.0 1.25165562914 160% => OK
Conjunction: 2.0 1.51434878587 132% => OK
Preposition: 3.0 2.5761589404 116% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 15.0 13.0662251656 115% => OK
Sentence length: 17.0 21.2450331126 80% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively short.
Sentence length SD: 33.1671859256 49.2860985944 67% => OK
Chars per sentence: 94.3333333333 110.228320801 86% => OK
Words per sentence: 17.5333333333 21.698381199 81% => OK
Discourse Markers: 7.93333333333 7.06452816374 112% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 1.0 4.19205298013 24% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 8.0 4.33554083885 185% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 6.0 4.45695364238 135% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 1.0 4.27373068433 23% => More facts, knowledge or examples wanted.
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.204644102618 0.272083759551 75% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0645559057376 0.0996497079465 65% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.04738699773 0.0662205650399 72% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.119591485996 0.162205337803 74% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0296957389454 0.0443174109184 67% => OK
automated_readability_index: 12.7 13.3589403974 95% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 45.76 53.8541721854 85% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 5.55761589404 158% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 11.1 11.0289183223 101% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 13.63 12.2367328918 111% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 9.1 8.42419426049 108% => OK
difficult_words: 77.0 63.6247240618 121% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 8.5 10.7273730684 79% => OK
gunning_fog: 8.8 10.498013245 84% => OK
text_standard: 9.0 11.2008830022 80% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 71.6666666667 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 21.5 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.