Many scientists believe it would be possible to maintain a permanent human presence on Mars or the Moon. On the other hand, conditions on Venus are so extreme and inhospitable that maintaining a human presence there would be impossible.
First, atmospheric pressure at Venus’ surface is at least 90 times greater than the pressure at Earth’s surface. This means that a force of 100 kilograms is pressing down on every square centimeter of surface. All spacecraft that have landed on Venus have been crushed by this extreme pressure within an hour of landing. Almost anything humans might land on Venus would be crushed as well.
Second, as far as we know, there are no reservoirs of water on Venus’ surface, and the planet’s atmosphere, made up mostly of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and sulfuric acid, contains hardly any oxygen or water vapor. Water and oxygen would therefore probably have to be supplied to Venus from Earth. The idea of ensuring a regular supply of water and oxygen from Earth is impractical in the extreme and would probably defeat the purpose of establishing a permanent station on Venus.
Third, very little sunlight reaches the planet’s surface. About 60 percent of the sunlight that hits Venus is reflected back into space by the thick clouds that fill the atmosphere, which means that only 40 percent of the sunlight can get through the clouds. Below these clouds is a dense layer of carbon dioxide, which blocks even more light, so very little light reaches the surface. The lack of light would prevent the use of solar power cells, so humans could not get electricity to power their machines and equipment.
Both the reading passage and the lecture discuss whether Venus is habitable for human. The passage provides three reasons to claim that Venus is inhabitable. However, the professor in the lecture casts doubt on all the reasons mentioned in the passage. Instead, the professor claims that it is possible for human to live in on Venus.
First of all, the passage states that the atmospheric pressure ate Venus' surface is at least 90 times greater than the pressure at Earth's surface, so it is likely that all spacecraft that have landed on Venus would have been crushed by its extreme pressure. Nevertheless, the professor refutes the passage by arguing that establishing a floating station on Venus can solve this concern. Since the station is high up in the atmosphere, the pressure would be much lighter than on the land.
Secondly, the passage mentions that there are no reservoirs of water on Venus' surface, so people probably have to supply water from Earth. Notwithstanding, the professor disagrees with the passage. Instead, he claims that people can produce water through chemical process. Thus, there is no need to supply water from Earth.
Finally, the passage concerns that there are very little sunlight reaches Venus' surface, since there are about 60 percent of the sunlight that hits the planet is reflected back into space by the thick clouds that fill the atmosphere. However, the professor counters the passage by pointing out that if the station is 50 kilometer above the land, the cloud would be less thick, so there would be more sunlight reaches the station. Moreover, people in the station can use solar panels that absorb reflected light to produce electricity.
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 7, column 115, Rule ID: THERE_RE_MANY
Message: Possible agreement error. Did you mean 'percents'?
...Venus surface, since there are about 60 percent of the sunlight that hits the planet is...
Line 7, column 321, Rule ID: CD_NN
Message: Possible agreement error. The noun 'kilometer' seems to be countable, so consider using: 'kilometers'.
... pointing out that if the station is 50 kilometer above the land, the cloud would be less...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
finally, first, however, if, moreover, nevertheless, second, secondly, so, thus, at least, first of all
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 16.0 10.4613686534 153% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 8.0 5.04856512141 158% => OK
Conjunction : 1.0 7.30242825607 14% => More conjunction wanted.
Relative clauses : 13.0 12.0772626932 108% => OK
Pronoun: 18.0 22.412803532 80% => OK
Preposition: 36.0 30.3222958057 119% => OK
Nominalization: 5.0 5.01324503311 100% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1416.0 1373.03311258 103% => OK
No of words: 279.0 270.72406181 103% => OK
Chars per words: 5.0752688172 5.08290768461 100% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.08696624509 4.04702891845 101% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.54058411479 2.5805825403 98% => OK
Unique words: 144.0 145.348785872 99% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.516129032258 0.540411800872 96% => OK
syllable_count: 428.4 419.366225166 102% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 1.0 3.25607064018 31% => OK
Article: 11.0 8.23620309051 134% => OK
Subordination: 2.0 1.25165562914 160% => OK
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 2.0 2.5761589404 78% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 14.0 13.0662251656 107% => OK
Sentence length: 19.0 21.2450331126 89% => OK
Sentence length SD: 62.6708684725 49.2860985944 127% => OK
Chars per sentence: 101.142857143 110.228320801 92% => OK
Words per sentence: 19.9285714286 21.698381199 92% => OK
Discourse Markers: 7.35714285714 7.06452816374 104% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 2.0 4.19205298013 48% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 1.0 4.33554083885 23% => More positive sentences wanted.
Sentences with negative sentiment : 8.0 4.45695364238 179% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 5.0 4.27373068433 117% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.152418504429 0.272083759551 56% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0505176237415 0.0996497079465 51% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0545931284283 0.0662205650399 82% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.0882822671959 0.162205337803 54% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0409354498329 0.0443174109184 92% => OK
automated_readability_index: 12.5 13.3589403974 94% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 60.65 53.8541721854 113% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 9.5 11.0289183223 86% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 12.18 12.2367328918 100% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.09 8.42419426049 96% => OK
difficult_words: 62.0 63.6247240618 97% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 11.0 10.7273730684 103% => OK
gunning_fog: 9.6 10.498013245 91% => OK
text_standard: 10.0 11.2008830022 89% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 76.6666666667 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 23.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.