In recent years, many frog species around the world have declined in numbers or even gone extinct due to changes in their environment. These population declines and extinctions have serious consequences for the ecosystems in which frogs live; for example, frogs help play a role in protecting humans by eating disease-carrying insects. Several methods have been proposed to solve the problem of declining frog populations.
First, frogs are being harmed by pesticides, which are chemicals used to prevent insects from damaging farm crops such as corn and sugarcane. Pesticides often spread from farmland into neighboring frog habitats. Once pesticides enter a frog’s body, they attack the nervous system, leading to severe breathing problems. If laws prohibited the farmers from using harmful pesticides near sensitive frog populations, it would significantly reduce the harm pesticides cause to frogs.
A second major factor in frog population decline is a fungus that has spread around the world with deadly effect. The fungus causes thickening of the skin, and since frogs use their skin to absorb water, infected frogs die of dehydration. Recently, researchers have discovered several ways to treat or prevent infection, including antifungal medication and treatments that kill the fungus with heat. Those treatments, if applied on a large scale, would protect sensitive frog populations from infection.
Third, in a great many cases, frog populations are in decline simply because their natural habitats are threatened. Since most frog species lay their eggs in water, they are dependent on water and wetland habitats. Many such habitats are threatened by human activities, including excessive water use or the draining of wetlands to make them suitable for development. If key water habitats such as lakes and marshes were better protected from excessive water use and development, many frog species would recover.
The reading passage contends that several methods would be able to solve the problem of the decrease in frog populations, and presents several evidences that seem to uphold the claim. However, the lecture disapproves the reading passage by claiming that the solutions offered are not practical and actually possess problems. The points made in the lecture will be elaborated in more detail below.
First of all, the lecture counterpoints the reading passage, which asserts that frogs are being harmed by pesticides that are used to prevent insects from damaging farm crops, by explaining that reducing the use of pesticides is not economically practical and is actually unfair. Farmers need to exploit pesticides in order to stay competitive with other farmers. If stricter regulations are held against farmers who grow crops near frog populations, then it would be a severe disadvantage for them, compared to farmers in other areas.
Secondly, while the reading passage maintains that fungus that has been spread around the world causes detrimental effect on the frog population, the lecture refutes this assertion by mentioning that the treatment needs to be applied to each individual frogs, making it highly unlikely to be the solution for the problem. Each frog would have to be captured and treated, and because the medication is not passed on to their offspring, the same treatment would have to be applied to the next generation and the next.
Last but not least, the reading passage claims that natural habitats are being threatened and is causing frog populations to decline. However, the lecture disputes this reason by commenting that human activities in lakes and marshes is not a biggest threat and inhibiting such activities would certainly not save the frog population. The actual main cause is due to global warming. Global warming is causing large amount of water to disappear, which leads to multiple species becoming extinct and frogs merely being one of them.
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 4, column 241, Rule ID: THE_SUPERLATIVE
Message: Use 'the' with the superlative.
... activities in lakes and marshes is not a biggest threat and inhibiting such acti...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
actually, but, first, however, if, second, secondly, so, then, while, first of all
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 23.0 10.4613686534 220% => Less to be verbs wanted.
Auxiliary verbs: 7.0 5.04856512141 139% => OK
Conjunction : 11.0 7.30242825607 151% => OK
Relative clauses : 14.0 12.0772626932 116% => OK
Pronoun: 18.0 22.412803532 80% => OK
Preposition: 41.0 30.3222958057 135% => OK
Nominalization: 8.0 5.01324503311 160% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1665.0 1373.03311258 121% => OK
No of words: 319.0 270.72406181 118% => OK
Chars per words: 5.21943573668 5.08290768461 103% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.22617688928 4.04702891845 104% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.66238154084 2.5805825403 103% => OK
Unique words: 178.0 145.348785872 122% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.557993730408 0.540411800872 103% => OK
syllable_count: 507.6 419.366225166 121% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.55342163355 103% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 0.0 3.25607064018 0% => OK
Article: 9.0 8.23620309051 109% => OK
Subordination: 2.0 1.25165562914 160% => OK
Conjunction: 2.0 1.51434878587 132% => OK
Preposition: 1.0 2.5761589404 39% => More preposition wanted as sentence beginning.
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 12.0 13.0662251656 92% => OK
Sentence length: 26.0 21.2450331126 122% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively long.
Sentence length SD: 76.9792540595 49.2860985944 156% => OK
Chars per sentence: 138.75 110.228320801 126% => OK
Words per sentence: 26.5833333333 21.698381199 123% => OK
Discourse Markers: 6.83333333333 7.06452816374 97% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 1.0 4.19205298013 24% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 3.0 4.33554083885 69% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 7.0 4.45695364238 157% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 2.0 4.27373068433 47% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.143116403149 0.272083759551 53% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0507542334655 0.0996497079465 51% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0406472078754 0.0662205650399 61% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.0850820129189 0.162205337803 52% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0437055687502 0.0443174109184 99% => OK
automated_readability_index: 16.4 13.3589403974 123% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 45.09 53.8541721854 84% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 5.55761589404 158% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 13.4 11.0289183223 121% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 13.29 12.2367328918 109% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 9.53 8.42419426049 113% => OK
difficult_words: 93.0 63.6247240618 146% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 14.5 10.7273730684 135% => OK
gunning_fog: 12.4 10.498013245 118% => OK
text_standard: 13.0 11.2008830022 116% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 80.0 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 24.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.