Solving a problem can be broken down into several steps. First, the problem must be identified correctly. Psychologists refer to this step as problem representation. For many problems, figuring out which information is relevant and which is extraneous van

Essay topics: Solving a problem can be broken down into several steps. First, the problem must be identified correctly. Psychologists refer to this step as problem representation. For many problems, figuring out which information is relevant and which is extraneous van be difficult and can interfere with arriving a good solution. Clearly before problem can be solved, it must be obvious what the problem is; however, this is not as easy as it might seem. One obstacle to efficient problem representation is functional fixedness, that is, allowing preconceived notions and even prejudices to color the facts. Most people tend to see objects and events in certain fixed ways, and by being inflexible in viewing the problem, they may be unable to notice the tools for the solution. Once the problem is identified accurately, however, the second step consist of considering the alternatives for solution. A common way to evaluate alternatives is to write them down and then make a list of advantages and disadvantages for each solution. Here again, people may be limited by prior experiences. Often people adopt metal sets that lead them to the same problem-solving strategies that were successful for problems in the pasts. Although that can be helpful most of the time, sometimes a new situation reqire a different strategy. In that case, the mental set must be abundant, and new alternatives must be explored. This can be difficult adjustment for some people. After the alternatives have been compared, a strategy must be selected from among them. One way to avoid becoming mired in the options is to try the best option with view to abandoning it for another if the results are unfavorable. This attitude allows many people to move on expeditiously to the next step-action. The strategy selected must be implemented and tested. If it solves the problem, no further action is necessary, but if not, then an unsuccessful solution may acctuly lead to a more successful option. If the solution is still not apparent, then the cycle begind again, stating with problem identification. By continuing to review the problem and repeat the problem-solving steps, the solution can be improved upon and refined.

kayp312's picture

While the reading passage deals with the steps in solving a problem, the lecture expands on the reading passage by going further into the role of breaks into solving a problem. The lecturer suggests through various examples and explanations, the conducive effect that sleep has on problem-solving in general, and two possible explanations for the efficacy of sleep in success while dealing with a difficult problem.

To begin with, the lecturer exemplifies the discovery made my Kekule during his sleep of the Benzene ring structure. This discovery made during sleep, although quite remarkable, was not easy to explain and opened up doors for questions as to whether the discoveries of such nature were made during complete sleep or in the state of relaxation. These questions are subsequently Resolved, but not completely.

In order to elucidate this phenomenon, the lecturer suggests two explanations. First, she suggests that new information could just be elicited during the sleeping state thereby helping the individual solve a problem. New findings could just appear before someone to propel the study further. She substantiates this explanation using example of Buckminister who happened to observe the multiple set of triangles helping his Geodesy model. Alternatively, this process, according to the lecturer, could simply be an interference that is introduced into the ineffectual pattern of thinking that has led the thinker or the scientist to an intellectual cul-de-sac. This is one of the 'alternatives' suggested in the readings which later lead to action for execution of any problem-solving strategy.

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Comments

Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 3, column 54, Rule ID: WHITESPACE_RULE
Message: Possible typo: you repeated a whitespace
Suggestion:
..., the lecturer exemplifies the discovery made my Kekule during his sleep of the B...
^^
Line 3, column 238, Rule ID: WHETHER[6]
Message: Can you shorten this phrase to just 'whether', or rephrase the sentence to avoid "as to"?
Suggestion: whether
...plain and opened up doors for questions as to whether the discoveries of such nature were mad...
^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Transition Words or Phrases used:
but, first, if, so, while, as to, in general, to begin with

Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments

Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 7.0 10.4613686534 67% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 3.0 5.04856512141 59% => OK
Conjunction : 6.0 7.30242825607 82% => OK
Relative clauses : 6.0 12.0772626932 50% => More relative clauses wanted.
Pronoun: 15.0 22.412803532 67% => OK
Preposition: 41.0 30.3222958057 135% => OK
Nominalization: 5.0 5.01324503311 100% => OK

Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1374.0 1373.03311258 100% => OK
No of words: 250.0 270.72406181 92% => More content wanted.
Chars per words: 5.496 5.08290768461 108% => OK
Fourth root words length: 3.97635364384 4.04702891845 98% => OK
Word Length SD: 3.08027011803 2.5805825403 119% => OK
Unique words: 151.0 145.348785872 104% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.604 0.540411800872 112% => OK
syllable_count: 424.8 419.366225166 101% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.7 1.55342163355 109% => OK

A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 6.0 3.25607064018 184% => OK
Article: 5.0 8.23620309051 61% => OK
Subordination: 2.0 1.25165562914 160% => OK
Conjunction: 2.0 1.51434878587 132% => OK
Preposition: 3.0 2.5761589404 116% => OK

Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 11.0 13.0662251656 84% => Need more sentences. Double check the format of sentences, make sure there is a space between two sentences, or have enough periods. And also check the lengths of sentences, maybe they are too long.
Sentence length: 22.0 21.2450331126 104% => OK
Sentence length SD: 59.735505175 49.2860985944 121% => OK
Chars per sentence: 124.909090909 110.228320801 113% => OK
Words per sentence: 22.7272727273 21.698381199 105% => OK
Discourse Markers: 5.36363636364 7.06452816374 76% => OK
Paragraphs: 3.0 4.09492273731 73% => More paragraphs wanted.
Language errors: 2.0 4.19205298013 48% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 5.0 4.33554083885 115% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 2.0 4.45695364238 45% => More negative sentences wanted.
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 4.0 4.27373068433 94% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?

Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.21605512885 0.272083759551 79% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0767807867842 0.0996497079465 77% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0782783779676 0.0662205650399 118% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.137030883453 0.162205337803 84% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0838523588776 0.0443174109184 189% => OK

Essay readability:
automated_readability_index: 15.8 13.3589403974 118% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 40.69 53.8541721854 76% => OK
smog_index: 11.2 5.55761589404 202% => Smog_index is high.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 13.1 11.0289183223 119% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 14.92 12.2367328918 122% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 9.97 8.42419426049 118% => OK
difficult_words: 83.0 63.6247240618 130% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 14.5 10.7273730684 135% => OK
gunning_fog: 10.8 10.498013245 103% => OK
text_standard: 15.0 11.2008830022 134% => OK
What are above readability scores?

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Minimum four paragraphs wanted. The correct pattern:

para 1: introduction
para 2: doubt 1
para 3: doubt 2
para 4: doubt 3

Less contents wanted from the reading passages(25%), more content wanted from the lecture (75%).

Don't need a conclusion paragraph.

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Rates: 88.3333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 26.5 Out of 30
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Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.