Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.
A fossil skeleton of a dinosaur called Sinosauropteryx, preserved in volcanic ash, was discovered in Liaoning, China, in 1996. Interestingly, the fossil included a pattern of fine lines surrounding the skeletal bones. Some paleontologists interpret the lines as evidence that Sinosauropteryx had feathers. However, critics have opposed the idea that Sinosauropteryx was a feathered dinosaur, citing several reasons.
First, the critics points out that the fine lines may not even represent functional structures of a living dinosaur, but rather structures that were formed after the animal’s death. After the animal died and was buried in volcanic ash, its skin may have decomposed into fibers. The skin fibers then became preserved as lines in the fossil; the lines were misinterpreted as evidence of feathers.
Second, even if the fine lines are remains of real structures of a Sinosauropteryx, scientists cannot tell with certainty what part of the dinosaur’s anatomy the structures were. Many dinosaurs had frills, ornamental fan-shaped structures growing out of some parts of their bodies. Some of the critics argue that the lines surrounding the skeleton are much more likely to be fossilized remains of frills than remains of feathers.
A third objection is based on the fact that the usual functions of feathers are to help animals fly or regulate their internal temperature. However, the structures represented by the lines in the Sinosauropteryx fossil were mostly located along the backbone and the tail of the animal. This would have made the structures quite useless for flight and of very limited use in thermoregulation. This suggests that the lines do not represent feathers.
The reading passage suggests that the lines of Sinosauropteryx are not possibly an evidence to show that it has feathers. Nevertheless, the lecturer holds an opposite opinion to the idea provided by the reading passage. The lecturer states some corresponding opposite ideas to the three points that mentioned in the reading passage with reasoning and evidence.
First, the reading passage suggests that the fine lines may not even represent functional structures of a living dinosaur. However, the lecturer says that there is no result shows that the decomposition happened. The lines might directly indicates that Sinosauropteryx has feathers.
Second, the reading passage argues that the scientists cannot certainly tell what part of the dinosaur's anatomy the structures were. Nevertheless, the lecture indicates that frills does not contain a certain chemical component indicating feathers. There are some scientific investigation demonstrate that the chemical component lies in the dinosaur's structure which indicates that the lines are an evidences of feathers.
Third, the lecturer notions that feathers may be used for other function, like displaying, rather than just be used as flying as the reading passage suggests. For example, peacock only use feather for displaying, with colorful feathers on it. There are some scientific studies show that some signs indicates that Sinosauropteryx has colorful feathers.
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to the three points that mentioned in the reading passage
to the three points that are mentioned in the reading passage
to the three points mentioned in the reading passage
there is no result shows that
there is no result which shows that
there is no result showing that
frills does not contain a certain chemical component
frills do not contain a certain chemical component
There are some scientific investigation demonstrate that
There are some scientific investigations which demonstrate that
There are some scientific investigations demonstrating that
for other function,
for other functions,
for another function,
There are some scientific studies show that
There are some scientific studies which show that
There are some scientific studies showing that
some signs indicates that
some signs indicate that
No. of Grammatical Errors: 7 2 //you have same grammar issues always
Attribute Value Ideal
Score: 18 in 30
Category: Satisfactory Excellent
No. of Grammatical Errors: 7 2
No. of Spelling Errors: 0 2
No. of Sentences: 12 12
No. of Words: 212 250
No. of Characters: 1185 1200
No. of Different Words: 111 150
Fourth Root of Number of Words: 3.816 4.2
Average Word Length: 5.59 4.6
Word Length SD: 2.915 2.4
No. of Words greater than 5 chars: 93 80
No. of Words greater than 6 chars: 83 60
No. of Words greater than 7 chars: 60 40
No. of Words greater than 8 chars: 32 20
Use of Passive Voice (%): 0 0
Avg. Sentence Length: 17.667 21.0
Sentence Length SD: 4.819 7.5
Use of Discourse Markers (%): 0.583 0.12
Sentence-Text Coherence: 0.419 0.35
Sentence-Para Coherence: 0.629 0.50
Sentence-Sentence Coherence: 0.102 0.07
Number of Paragraphs: 4 4