tpo 04Endotherms are animals such as modern birds and mammals that keep their body temperatures constant. For instance, humans are endotherms and maintain an internal temperature of 37°C, no matter whether the environment is warm or cold. Because dinosau

Essay topics: tpo 04

Endotherms are animals such as modern birds and mammals that keep their body temperatures constant. For instance, humans are endotherms and maintain an internal temperature of 37°C, no matter whether the environment is warm or cold. Because dinosaurs were reptiles, and modern reptiles are not endotherms, it was long assumed that dinosaurs were not endotherms. However, dinosaurs differ in many ways from modem reptiles, and there is now considerable evidence that dinosaurs were, in fact, endotherms.

Polar dinosaurs

One reason for believing that dinosaurs were endotherms is that dinosaur fossils have been discovered in polar regions. Only animals that can maintain a temperature well above that of the surrounding environment could be active in such cold climates.

Leg position and movement

There is a connection between endothermy and the position and movement of the legs. The physiology of endothermy allows sustained physical activity, such as running. But running is efficient only if an animal's legs are positioned underneath its body, not at the body's side, as they are for crocodiles and many lizards. The legs of all modern endotherms are underneath the body, and so were the legs of dinosaurs. This strongly suggests that dinosaurs were endotherms.

Haversian canals

There is also a connection between endothermy and bone structure. The bones of endotherms usually include structures called Haversian canals. These canals house nerves and blood vessels that allow the living animal to grow quickly, and rapid body growth is in fact a characteristic of endothermy. The presence of Haversian canals in bone is a strong indicator that the animal is an endotherm, and fossilized bones of dinosaurs are usually dense with Haversian canals.

Seema Modak's picture

The reading and lecture are both about dinosaurs who were the reptiles. The author of the reading feels that though modern reptiles differ from dinosaurs in many ways, thus dinosaurs are endotherms and presents some reasons for holding this view. The lecturer challenged the claim made by the author. She is on the opinion that many scientists proved that dinosaurs are not endotherms.

To begin with, the author argues that many dinosaurs fossils had found near the polar regions. He also states that only endotherm animals can sustain in this cold temperature. The specific argument is challenged by the lecturer. She mentions that fossils found many regions were warmer than today. She also claims that may be dinosaurs hibernate or migrate in the other regions like today's reptile.

Second, the author suggests that endotherm animals had a connection between position of the legs and how they use the leg efficiently. He also adds that it is only possible if their legs under the body. The lecturer rebuts this by mentioning that may be their legs under the body because of their weight. Moreover, these legs supported to the body and no connection with the energy.

Third, the author posits that a kind of Haversian canal that was found only on the endotherm animals which increase the growth of the animals. He also additionally says that this kind of canals was found densely to the dinosaurs fossil. In contrast, the lecturer position is that bone structure has a canal growth rings indicate that it may stop growing or not growth.

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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 1, column 248, Rule ID: ENGLISH_WORD_REPEAT_BEGINNING_RULE
Message: Three successive sentences begin with the same word. Reword the sentence or use a thesaurus to find a synonym.
...nts some reasons for holding this view. The lecturer challenged the claim made by t...
^^^
Line 7, column 220, Rule ID: POSSESIVE_APOSTROPHE[2]
Message: Possible typo: apostrophe is missing. Did you mean 'dinosaurs'' or 'dinosaur's'?
Suggestion: dinosaurs'; dinosaur's
...kind of canals was found densely to the dinosaurs fossil. In contrast, the lecturer posit...
^^^^^^^^^

Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, but, if, may, moreover, second, so, third, thus, in contrast, kind of, to begin with

Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments

Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 13.0 10.4613686534 124% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 4.0 5.04856512141 79% => OK
Conjunction : 6.0 7.30242825607 82% => OK
Relative clauses : 17.0 12.0772626932 141% => OK
Pronoun: 32.0 22.412803532 143% => Less pronouns wanted
Preposition: 27.0 30.3222958057 89% => OK
Nominalization: 5.0 5.01324503311 100% => OK

Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1290.0 1373.03311258 94% => OK
No of words: 259.0 270.72406181 96% => OK
Chars per words: 4.98069498069 5.08290768461 98% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.01166760082 4.04702891845 99% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.43040916037 2.5805825403 94% => OK
Unique words: 138.0 145.348785872 95% => More unique words wanted.
Unique words percentage: 0.532818532819 0.540411800872 99% => OK
syllable_count: 388.8 419.366225166 93% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK

A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 7.0 3.25607064018 215% => Less pronouns wanted as sentence beginning.
Article: 9.0 8.23620309051 109% => OK
Subordination: 0.0 1.25165562914 0% => More adverbial clause wanted.
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 2.0 2.5761589404 78% => OK

Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 16.0 13.0662251656 122% => OK
Sentence length: 16.0 21.2450331126 75% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively short.
Sentence length SD: 33.264975481 49.2860985944 67% => OK
Chars per sentence: 80.625 110.228320801 73% => OK
Words per sentence: 16.1875 21.698381199 75% => OK
Discourse Markers: 5.625 7.06452816374 80% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 2.0 4.19205298013 48% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 6.0 4.33554083885 138% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 3.0 4.45695364238 67% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 7.0 4.27373068433 164% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?

Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.413621871094 0.272083759551 152% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.122757863621 0.0996497079465 123% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0631616536549 0.0662205650399 95% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.232092518891 0.162205337803 143% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0226585321892 0.0443174109184 51% => OK

Essay readability:
automated_readability_index: 10.1 13.3589403974 76% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 63.7 53.8541721854 118% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 8.4 11.0289183223 76% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 11.31 12.2367328918 92% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.09 8.42419426049 96% => OK
difficult_words: 60.0 63.6247240618 94% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 6.0 10.7273730684 56% => Linsear_write_formula is low.
gunning_fog: 8.4 10.498013245 80% => OK
text_standard: 9.0 11.2008830022 80% => OK
What are above readability scores?

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Rates: 78.3333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 23.5 Out of 30
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Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.

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