tpo 47 integrated

Essay topics:

tpo 47 integrated

The reading and the lecture are both contradicting each other, in terms of the ability of pterosaurs to fly in the air. More specifically, the writer discusses three explanations to prove that an ancient group of winged reptiles named pterosaurs had the ability to powered flight. the lecture in the listening passage disagrees with the mentioned hypothesis in the reading and provide some evidence to refute them.

According to the reading, the first dispute focuses on the fact that powered flight activity is demanding a lot of energy which ancient pterosaurs would not have able to generate since they were cold-blooded reptiles. Nonetheless, the speaker negates the argument presented in the passage. Furthermore, she declares that warm-blooded usually have a dense covering on their outer body surface in order to maintain a high temperature in their body in the harsh cold climates. Hence, Warm-blooded reptiles such as pterosaurs must supply a lot of energy which is required for powered flight.

Moreover, another passage highlights that since pterosaurs were very large and heavy, it would not have possible for them to fly with their heavyweight in the air. Nevertheless, the narrator rebuts this by asserting that the bones of pterosaurs were hollow from inside instead of solid. Therefore, this unusual anatomical feature kept their weight low and further helped to flap their wings fast enough to fly despite having a large bodyweight.

Finally, the text explains that the hind leg muscles of pterosaurs were too small and weak to support them to jump high or run fast to launch themselves into the air. On the contrary, the penman again opposes the theory and describes that in contrast to birds who use their two hind legs to push off in the air, pterosaurs had four limbs which may allow them to push off from the ground. Furthermore, these legs permitted them to run fast and jump high to launch themselves in the air.

Average: 8 (1 vote)
Essay Categories
Essays by the user:


No. of Words: 321 250
Write the essay in 20 minutes.

Attribute Value Ideal
Final score: 23 in 30
Category: Good Excellent
No. of Grammatical Errors: 6 2
No. of Spelling Errors: 6 2
No. of Sentences: 12 12
No. of Words: 321 250
No. of Characters: 1586 1200
No. of Different Words: 174 150
Fourth Root of Number of Words: 4.233 4.2
Average Word Length: 4.941 4.6
Word Length SD: 2.62 2.4
No. of Words greater than 5 chars: 108 80
No. of Words greater than 6 chars: 87 60
No. of Words greater than 7 chars: 55 40
No. of Words greater than 8 chars: 37 20
Use of Passive Voice (%): 0 0
Avg. Sentence Length: 26.75 21.0
Sentence Length SD: 10.001 7.5
Use of Discourse Markers (%): 0.833 0.12
Sentence-Text Coherence: 0.383 0.35
Sentence-Para Coherence: 0.636 0.50
Sentence-Sentence Coherence: 0.192 0.07
Number of Paragraphs: 4 4