Explain the concept of ritualization using the example of dogs discussed by the professor.
Sociobiologists believe that some communicative behavior in animals is developed through a process called ritualization. In this process, the purpose of a given behavior changes over time—a behavior that originally had a practical purpose develops into one that communicates a specific message. For example, a certain movement or physical feature might evolve to serve as a signal or a warning that other animals will understand. Once a behavior is ritualized, it becomes a form of communication; therefore, if an animal engages in this behavior, other animals will be able to interpret the meaning of the behavior quickly and respond appropriately.
- The woman expresses her opinion about the university’s plan. Briefly summarize the plan. Then state her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.90
- Some people think that children should be allowed to watch whatever television programs they choose to. Others think that parents should exercise control over the television programs their children watch. Which do you agree with? Explain why.60
- The speakers discuss two possible solutions to the woman’s problem. Briefly summarize the problem. Then state which should solution you recommend and explain why.81
- Some people want to have a relaxed and unhurried life, do you agree with?76
- The woman expresses her opinion of the change that has been announced. State her opinion and explain her reasons for holding that opinion.80
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 539.0 592.248995984 91% => OK
No of words: 148.0 155.574297189 95% => More words wanted. You may: choose simpler words or speak faster or remove hesitations or remove long pauses, and fully use the time, do NOT save one or two seconds.
Chars per words: 3.64189189189 3.80514564318 96% => OK
Fourth root words length: 3.48791127476 3.525876923 99% => OK
Word Length SD: 1.5334563289 1.79077849142 86% => OK
Unique words: 95.0 93.7148594378 101% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.641891891892 0.604071249207 106% => OK
Syllable count: 176.4 185.844578313 95% => OK
Avg_syllables_per_word: 1.2 1.19417670683 100% => OK
Performance on coherence:
Topic speech coherence ratio: 0.0 0.0650381309087 0% => It may have issues on recording quality or the content is not so closely related to content.
Acoustic performance on paragraphs:
How many acoustic paragraphs: 6.0 4.35341365462 138% => OK
Average paragraph length: 24.6666666667 68.503853103 36% => The average paragraph length is low.
STD paragraph length: 8.27982823225 21.3332995233 39% => OK
Average paragraph duration: 9.82666666667 25.9943957902 38% => The speaking content is not well organized.
STD paragraph duration: 3.42905072708 7.84667146824 44% => OK
Acoustic performance on sentences:
How many acoustic sentences: 40.0 42.0642570281 95% => OK
Average acoustic sentence length: 3.7 4.02192344571 92% => OK
STD acoustic sentence length: 2.84780617318 3.1217529195 91% => OK
Average acoustic sentences duration: 1.41425 1.45093177766 97% => OK
STD acoustic sentences duration: 0.972951405518 0.99851816184 97% => OK
Acoustic performance on acoustic silence:(An acoustic silence means a little pause between two or more words)
How many acoustic silence: 42.0 39.0421686747 108% => OK
Total acoustic silence duration: 6.45 7.12997991968 90% => OK
Average acoustic silence duration: 0.153571428571 0.185688545393 83% => OK
STD acoustic silence duration: 0.174912514575 0.155154303396 113% => OK
Acoustic performance on acoustic words:
Total word duration: 48.39 47.1480722892 103% => OK
Average word duration: 0.326959459459 0.305395592593 107% => OK
STD word duration: 0.207030676614 0.189427763521 109% => OK
Disfluencies: like hesitations, or 'ehn' or taking a long time to pronounce a word:
How many disfluencies: 13.0 7.94979919679 164% => It may have 'ehn' in the speaking, or it has hesitations or overlapping speeches.
Total_disfluencies_duration: 10.7 6.2937751004 170% => Somehow the hesitation is serious.
Total acoustic noise duration: 2.15 3.39508032129 63% => OK
Total speech duration: 58.96 59.7592369478 99% => OK
Compare to expected duration: 0.982666666667 0.995987282463 99% => OK
Rate of silence: 0.712347354138 0.656000678711 109% => OK
Rate of speech: 2.51017639077 2.60215298798 96% => OK
Rate of speech by unique words: 1.61126187246 1.56821927147 103% => OK
Rate of word duration by unique words: 1.9632155404 1.99336655568 98% => OK
Average articulation rates: 0.280397222973 0.317803793328 88% => OK
Rates: 75.0 out of 100
Scores by speech e-grader: 22.5 Out of 30
Note: the speech e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas.