1. The following memo was published by the Welzaton City Commission.
"A recent nationwide study of the effectiveness of wearing a safety helmet while bicycling indicates that ten years ago approximately 35 percent of all bicyclists reported wearing helmets, whereas today that number is nearly 80 percent. Another study, however, cites a 200 percent increase in the number of serious accidents involving bicycles during the same period. Meanwhile, results of a local survey of frequent bicycle riders indicate that 75 percent of those riders feel 'much safer' on busy roads when they wear helmets than when they don't. The best explanation for the rise in bicycle-related accidents is that bicyclists take more risks now than they did ten years ago because they feel safer when they are wearing helmets."
Write a response in which you discuss one or more alternative explanations that could rival the proposed explanation and explain how your explanation(s) can plausibly account for the facts presented in the argument.
Recently, many bicycle-related accidents are occurring in the cities. Regarding this issue, the author concludes that accidents happen due to the misconception that wearing a helmet would preclude accidents from occurring. He presents the evidence to suggest this is valid, including the statistical data of people driving bicycles roughly and feeling secure wearing helmets. Though the underlying issue might be true due to lack of germane evidence, unaddressed assumptions, and vague terminology the author’s argument is unsubstantiated and deeply flawed.
Firstly how can one state that increase in 200% serious accidents involving bicycles are because to people wearing the safety guard and feeling safe about it? There could be numerous reasons other than it, for instance, the increase in urbanizations over 10 years has led to tremendous traffic on the streets, due to which accidents might have occurred. In addition to that accidents also might have occurred due to narrowing of roads or people are driving recklessly on the path.
Meanwhile, the author states the results of the local survey, how does the cyclist saying that they feel safer wearing helmets conclude that they have met with an accident due to that? There is no proper evidence of the same. And also it might be the case that bicycle drivers who are not wearing the head protector are meeting with an accident rather than the ones wearing them. So there is no relevant and appropriate data for the above-stated assumption.
However, the increase in awareness of wearing helmets while peddling from 35% to 80% over a decade could have increased accidents as it is a human tendency to take such risks when you know you have nothing to lose. But the author hasn’t presented any such reasoning that can be acceptable.
So according to the authors of the argument, it could not be predicted that the accidents reached the peaks due to bicyclists taking more risks now than they did ten years ago because they feel safer when they are wearing helmets.
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Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, but, first, firstly, however, regarding, so, while, for instance, in addition, you know
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 16.0 19.6327345309 81% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 10.0 12.9520958084 77% => OK
Conjunction : 8.0 11.1786427146 72% => OK
Relative clauses : 14.0 13.6137724551 103% => OK
Pronoun: 26.0 28.8173652695 90% => OK
Preposition: 36.0 55.5748502994 65% => OK
Nominalization: 9.0 16.3942115768 55% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1700.0 2260.96107784 75% => OK
No of words: 332.0 441.139720559 75% => More content wanted.
Chars per words: 5.12048192771 5.12650576532 100% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.2685907696 4.56307096286 94% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.70947087076 2.78398813304 97% => OK
Unique words: 183.0 204.123752495 90% => More unique words wanted.
Unique words percentage: 0.551204819277 0.468620217663 118% => OK
syllable_count: 519.3 705.55239521 74% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.59920159681 100% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 2.0 4.96107784431 40% => OK
Article: 4.0 8.76447105788 46% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 2.70958083832 37% => OK
Conjunction: 3.0 1.67365269461 179% => OK
Preposition: 2.0 4.22255489022 47% => More preposition wanted as sentence beginning.
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 14.0 19.7664670659 71% => Need more sentences. Double check the format of sentences, make sure there is a space between two sentences, or have enough periods. And also check the lengths of sentences, maybe they are too long.
Sentence length: 23.0 22.8473053892 101% => OK
Sentence length SD: 56.1855526495 57.8364921388 97% => OK
Chars per sentence: 121.428571429 119.503703932 102% => OK
Words per sentence: 23.7142857143 23.324526521 102% => OK
Discourse Markers: 6.64285714286 5.70786347227 116% => OK
Paragraphs: 5.0 5.15768463074 97% => OK
Language errors: 0.0 5.25449101796 0% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 4.0 8.20758483034 49% => More positive sentences wanted.
Sentences with negative sentiment : 9.0 6.88822355289 131% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 1.0 4.67664670659 21% => More facts, knowledge or examples wanted.
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.145570341412 0.218282227539 67% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0496235104496 0.0743258471296 67% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0438369209939 0.0701772020484 62% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.088422637787 0.128457276422 69% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0169183184452 0.0628817314937 27% => Paragraphs are similar to each other. Some content may get duplicated or it is not exactly right on the topic.
automated_readability_index: 14.5 14.3799401198 101% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 48.13 48.3550499002 100% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 7.1628742515 43% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 12.3 12.197005988 101% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 12.71 12.5979740519 101% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.68 8.32208582834 104% => OK
difficult_words: 82.0 98.500998004 83% => More difficult words wanted.
linsear_write_formula: 11.0 12.3882235529 89% => OK
gunning_fog: 11.2 11.1389221557 101% => OK
text_standard: 11.0 11.9071856287 92% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 54.17 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 3.25 Out of 6
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.
Attribute Value Ideal
Final score: 3.5 out of 6
Category: Satisfactory Excellent
No. of Grammatical Errors: 5 2
No. of Spelling Errors: 7 2
No. of Sentences: 14 15
No. of Words: 333 350
No. of Characters: 1656 1500
No. of Different Words: 178 200
Fourth Root of Number of Words: 4.272 4.7
Average Word Length: 4.973 4.6
Word Length SD: 2.651 2.4
No. of Words greater than 5 chars: 120 100
No. of Words greater than 6 chars: 99 80
No. of Words greater than 7 chars: 64 40
No. of Words greater than 8 chars: 39 20
Use of Passive Voice (%): 0 0
Avg. Sentence Length: 23.786 21.0
Sentence Length SD: 10.072 7.5
Use of Discourse Markers (%): 0.643 0.12
Sentence-Text Coherence: 0.346 0.35
Sentence-Para Coherence: 0.346 0.50
Sentence-Sentence Coherence: 0.099 0.07
Number of Paragraphs: 1 5