The following memorandum is from the business manager of Happy Pancake House restaurants.
"Recently, butter has been replaced by margarine in Happy Pancake House restaurants throughout the southwestern United States. This change, however, has had little impact on our customers. In fact, only about 2 percent of customers have complained, indicating that an average of 98 people out of 100 are happy with the change. Furthermore, many servers have reported that a number of customers who ask for butter do not complain when they are given margarine instead. Clearly, either these customers do not distinguish butter from margarine or they use the term 'butter' to refer to either butter or margarine."
Write a response in which you discuss one or more alternative explanations that could rival the proposed explanation and explain how your explanation(s) can plausibly account for the facts presented in the argument.
The argument above presents a case from Happy Pancake House that substituted butter with margarine and concludes such a change did not impact customers significantly. Apparently, the café is trying to cut the costs but maintain current level of visitors and is almost ready to jump into conclusion that suggested measure is cost-effective and will increase the profit. However, the conclusion is, most probably, only ostensibly efficient and require more thorough examination of provided proves before any further actions.
To being with, the assumption that customers who do not complain are happy with suggested service is hasty. Many consumers do not give any feedback but stop using a service or product as a response. To prove an assumption that only 2% of consumers are truly unhappy with substitution of buffer with margarine one should conduct a valid norm study that will prove it directly.
As another proof that some customers did not notice the shift, the author cites the fact that many servers declared that customers did not complain when got margarine instead of butter. First, the doubt of source reliability call to obtain the same information through other sources: the servers might provide information on customer complains untruly because, for example, they have incentive for not having complains. Second, the arguer refers to the number of servers who provide data as “many” which casts a doubt on validity of the sample: was it representative? May be only the most efficient stuff was interview who is so highly professional that never have complains. Third, customers may indeed not complain just because they either, as I have mentioned before, do not say anything but do not return or customers assumed on their turn that the café have no butter. Actually, so many reasons can affect why customers do not complain. May be, they think that is hopeless. We just do not know. Norm study would help to resolve the discrepancy.
In conclusion, to make sure that customers truly were not affected by the shift, a norm study embracing representative sample is vital.
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 2, column 4, Rule ID: BEING_BEGIN
Message: Did you mean 'begin'?
... proves before any further actions. To being with, the assumption that customers who...
Line 3, column 665, Rule ID: ADVERB_WORD_ORDER
Message: The adverb 'never' is usually put between 'have' and 'complains'.
Suggestion: have never complains
...view who is so highly professional that never have complains. Third, customers may indeed not compla...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
actually, apparently, but, first, however, if, may, second, so, third, for example, in conclusion
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 16.0 19.6327345309 81% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 9.0 12.9520958084 69% => OK
Conjunction : 9.0 11.1786427146 81% => OK
Relative clauses : 17.0 13.6137724551 125% => OK
Pronoun: 20.0 28.8173652695 69% => OK
Preposition: 32.0 55.5748502994 58% => More preposition wanted.
Nominalization: 7.0 16.3942115768 43% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1764.0 2260.96107784 78% => OK
No of words: 341.0 441.139720559 77% => More content wanted.
Chars per words: 5.17302052786 5.12650576532 101% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.29722995808 4.56307096286 94% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.81875392803 2.78398813304 101% => OK
Unique words: 199.0 204.123752495 97% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.58357771261 0.468620217663 125% => OK
syllable_count: 549.9 705.55239521 78% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.59920159681 100% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 3.0 4.96107784431 60% => OK
Article: 8.0 8.76447105788 91% => OK
Subordination: 2.0 2.70958083832 74% => OK
Conjunction: 0.0 1.67365269461 0% => OK
Preposition: 4.0 4.22255489022 95% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 16.0 19.7664670659 81% => Need more sentences. Double check the format of sentences, make sure there is a space between two sentences, or have enough periods. And also check the lengths of sentences, maybe they are too long.
Sentence length: 21.0 22.8473053892 92% => OK
Sentence length SD: 62.3803542291 57.8364921388 108% => OK
Chars per sentence: 110.25 119.503703932 92% => OK
Words per sentence: 21.3125 23.324526521 91% => OK
Discourse Markers: 6.0625 5.70786347227 106% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 5.15768463074 78% => More paragraphs wanted.
Language errors: 2.0 5.25449101796 38% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 9.0 8.20758483034 110% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 6.0 6.88822355289 87% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 1.0 4.67664670659 21% => More facts, knowledge or examples wanted.
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.076292720573 0.218282227539 35% => The similarity between the topic and the content is low.
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0246351390322 0.0743258471296 33% => Sentence topic similarity is low.
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0520646115808 0.0701772020484 74% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.0469355033223 0.128457276422 37% => Maybe some paragraphs are off the topic.
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0479463829561 0.0628817314937 76% => OK
automated_readability_index: 13.6 14.3799401198 95% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 50.16 48.3550499002 104% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 7.1628742515 123% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 11.5 12.197005988 94% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 12.71 12.5979740519 101% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.66 8.32208582834 104% => OK
difficult_words: 86.0 98.500998004 87% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 11.0 12.3882235529 89% => OK
gunning_fog: 10.4 11.1389221557 93% => OK
text_standard: 9.0 11.9071856287 76% => OK
What are above readability scores?
It is not exactly right on the topic in the view of e-grader. Maybe there is a wrong essay topic.
Rates: 16.67 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 1.0 Out of 6
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.
Attribute Value Ideal
Final score: 3.5 out of 6
Category: Satisfactory Excellent
No. of Grammatical Errors: 0 2
No. of Spelling Errors: 0 2
No. of Sentences: 16 15
No. of Words: 341 350
No. of Characters: 1706 1500
No. of Different Words: 194 200
Fourth Root of Number of Words: 4.297 4.7
Average Word Length: 5.003 4.6
Word Length SD: 2.672 2.4
No. of Words greater than 5 chars: 123 100
No. of Words greater than 6 chars: 94 80
No. of Words greater than 7 chars: 66 40
No. of Words greater than 8 chars: 44 20
Use of Passive Voice (%): 0 0
Avg. Sentence Length: 21.312 21.0
Sentence Length SD: 9.635 7.5
Use of Discourse Markers (%): 0.625 0.12
Sentence-Text Coherence: 0.314 0.35
Sentence-Para Coherence: 0.5 0.50
Sentence-Sentence Coherence: 0.071 0.07
Number of Paragraphs: 4 5