In 1995 a microscopic fungus called phytophthora ramorum, or P. ramorum, was first detected in the forests of the western United States. P. ramorum infects trees and causes particularly serious damage in oak trees: in many infected oaks, leaves wither rap

Essay topics:

In 1995 a microscopic fungus called phytophthora ramorum, or P. ramorum, was first detected in the forests of the western United States. P. ramorum infects trees and causes particularly serious damage in oak trees: in many infected oaks, leaves wither rapidly, large cracks appear in the bark, and the trees die. A spread of P. ramorum represents a serious threat to the forests in the western states. Several methods of protecting the forests have been proposed.

First, stopping P. ramorum spores from spreading would surely be an effective method. Spores are small particles through which all fungi, including P. ramorum, reproduce. Researchers have discovered that many P. ramorum spores can be found along hiking or biking trails, suggesting human-assisted spread by way of shoes and bicycle tires. A few measures to prevent such human-assisted spread-like encouraging hikers to wash their shoes and installing new bike scrubbers on bicycle trails-would be an effective and low-cost way to stop the spread of P. ramorum.

Second, there are a few fungicidal (fungus-fighting) chemicals that can be used to protect the oak trees. Some of these chemicals stimulate the oak trees’ natural defenses against the P. ramorum fungus and have been found in small-scale tryouts to significantly reduce the likelihood that the oaks will be infected.

A third way to fight P. ramorum is a practice called clear-cutting. This approach starts with cutting and burning the diseased oaks, but it also involves cutting and burning the seemingly healthy vegetation (bushes and other kinds of trees) surrounding the oaks. This is done because some of the surrounding plants and trees may be infected even though they do not show any symptoms of the disease. Cleaning large areas of vegetation in places where diseased trees are found is often an efficient measure to stop the spread of infections.

Word Count: 299

Recently, there has been a ton of debates about the feasibility of applying several methods to protect Oak trees from Phytophthora ramorum. More specifically, about the passage, the writer puts forth the idea that there are three ways can be used to protect Oak trees from P.ramorum fungus. In the listening passage, the lecturer is quick to point out that there are some serious flaws in the writer's claims. The professor believes that the methods in the reading passage have serious limitations, and addresses in detail the trouble with each point made in the reading text.

First and foremost, the author of the reading passage states that the first way is preventing spores from spreading by reducing the human-assisted spread. Some professionals in the same field, however, stand in firm opposition to this claim. In listening, such as the professor states that spreading spores by shoes and bicycle tires do not have a huge impact. He goes to say that rainwater and water stream is the main responsible for spreading P. ramorum pores to long-distance.

One group of scholars, represented by the writer, thinks that using chemicals is very helpful to offer Oak trees with suitable protection from Phytophthora ramorum. Of course, though, not all experts in this field believe this is correct. Again, the speaker specifically addresses this point when she says that the chemical's effect lasts for a few months. Moreover, this method is not practical and expensive to be applied to large forests.

Finally, the author wraps his argument by positing that the clear-cutting method is the third way to protect Oak trees. Not surprisingly, the lecturer takes this issue with his claim by contending that vegetation in the West of the United States are rare and healthy tress which cannot be recovered easily.

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Average: 8.1 (1 vote)
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Comments

Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 9, column 366, Rule ID: WHITESPACE_RULE
Message: Possible typo: you repeated a whitespace
Suggestion:
...effect lasts for a few months. Moreover, this method is not practical and expensi...
^^

Transition Words or Phrases used:
finally, first, however, if, moreover, so, third, of course, such as

Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments

Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 14.0 10.4613686534 134% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 2.0 5.04856512141 40% => OK
Conjunction : 6.0 7.30242825607 82% => OK
Relative clauses : 12.0 12.0772626932 99% => OK
Pronoun: 20.0 22.412803532 89% => OK
Preposition: 41.0 30.3222958057 135% => OK
Nominalization: 5.0 5.01324503311 100% => OK

Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1529.0 1373.03311258 111% => OK
No of words: 297.0 270.72406181 110% => OK
Chars per words: 5.14814814815 5.08290768461 101% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.15134772569 4.04702891845 103% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.72735170522 2.5805825403 106% => OK
Unique words: 167.0 145.348785872 115% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.56228956229 0.540411800872 104% => OK
syllable_count: 449.1 419.366225166 107% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK

A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 2.0 3.25607064018 61% => OK
Article: 7.0 8.23620309051 85% => OK
Subordination: 0.0 1.25165562914 0% => More adverbial clause wanted.
Conjunction: 1.0 1.51434878587 66% => OK
Preposition: 4.0 2.5761589404 155% => OK

Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 15.0 13.0662251656 115% => OK
Sentence length: 19.0 21.2450331126 89% => OK
Sentence length SD: 40.3729282234 49.2860985944 82% => OK
Chars per sentence: 101.933333333 110.228320801 92% => OK
Words per sentence: 19.8 21.698381199 91% => OK
Discourse Markers: 4.53333333333 7.06452816374 64% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 1.0 4.19205298013 24% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 6.0 4.33554083885 138% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 4.0 4.45695364238 90% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 5.0 4.27373068433 117% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?

Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.138088677362 0.272083759551 51% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0471542526749 0.0996497079465 47% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0575394917728 0.0662205650399 87% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.077999059024 0.162205337803 48% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0409161168396 0.0443174109184 92% => OK

Essay readability:
automated_readability_index: 12.7 13.3589403974 95% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 60.65 53.8541721854 113% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 9.5 11.0289183223 86% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 12.59 12.2367328918 103% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.19 8.42419426049 97% => OK
difficult_words: 68.0 63.6247240618 107% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 11.0 10.7273730684 103% => OK
gunning_fog: 9.6 10.498013245 91% => OK
text_standard: 13.0 11.2008830022 116% => OK
What are above readability scores?

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Rates: 81.6666666667 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 24.5 Out of 30
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Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.