Carved stone balls are a curious type of artifact found at a number of locations in Scotland They date from the late Neolithic period around 4 000 years ago They are round in shape they were carved from several types of stone most are about 70 mm in diame

Essay topics:

Carved stone balls are a curious type of artifact found at a number of locations in Scotland. They date from the late Neolithic period, around 4,000 years ago. They are round in shape; they were carved from several types of stone; most are about 70 mm in diameter; and many are ornamented to some degree. Archaeologists do not agree about their purpose and meaning, but there are several theories.

One theory is that the carved stone balls were weapons used in hunting or fighting. Some of the stone balls have been found with holes in them, and many have grooves on the surface. It is possible that a cord was strung through the holes or laid in the grooves around the ball. Holding the stone balls at the end of the cord would have allowed a person to swing it around or throw it.

A second theory is that the carved stone balls were used as part of a primitive system of weights and measures. The fact that they are so nearly uniform in size – at 70 mm in diameter – suggests that the balls were interchangeable and represented some standard unit of measure. They could have been used as standard weights to measure quantities of grain or other food, or anything that needed to be measured by weight on a balance or scale for the purpose of trade.

A third theory is that the carved stone balls served a social purpose as opposed to a practical or utilitarian one. This view is supported by the fact that many stone balls have elaborate designs. The elaborate carving suggests that the stones may have marked the important social status of their owners.

Both the reading passage and the lecture discuss hypotheses about the meaning and purpose of the carved stone balls from the late neolithic period. Whereas the reading passage provides three theories about the purpose of the carved stone balls, the lecture refutes these theories for the following reasons.
Firstly, the author mentions that the carved stone balls possess holes and grooves that allow a cord to be strung in them. Thus, the balls could be used for hunting or fighting. On the other hand, the professor refutes this assumption and states that the balls’ surfaces are very well preserved. There is no wear and or damage on their surfaces as proof of their use for hunting or fighting.
Secondly, the reading passage claims that the carved stone balls probably were used as a primitive measure system because the balls are uniform in size. Therefore, they were used to measure food for the purpose of trading. Meanwhile, the lecture debates this and empathizes that the carved stone balls are of different kinds of stones that vary in density. So, it is not of a standard density or weight. Accordingly, it can’t be used as a reference for a measuring system.
Lastly, the author claims that the carved stone balls could be an emphasis on high social status. Because the stones elaborate sophisticated and special designs. Obviously, the lecturer disagrees with this and claims that some of the carved stone balls were very simple in their design. She goes on and highlights an important fact about high-ranking people. They put their belongings with them when they die. However, no stone balls were found in any tomb or grave. This means that it wasn’t considered as much value as the author claims.
The theories assumed by the reading passage are thus found invalid by the professor.

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Average: 7.3 (2 votes)
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Comments

Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 3, column 137, Rule ID: ADJECTIVE_IN_ATTRIBUTE[1]
Message: A more concise phrase may lose no meaning and sound more powerful.
Suggestion: uniform
...ve measure system because the balls are uniform in size. Therefore, they were used to measure f...
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Line 3, column 174, Rule ID: ADMIT_ENJOY_VB[5]
Message: This verb is used with the gerund form: 'used to measuring'.
Suggestion: used to measuring
...e uniform in size. Therefore, they were used to measure food for the purpose of trading. Meanwh...
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Line 4, column 223, Rule ID: SOME_OF_THE[1]
Message: Simply use 'some'.
Suggestion: some
...rer disagrees with this and claims that some of the carved stone balls were very simple in ...
^^^^^^^^^^^

Transition Words or Phrases used:
accordingly, first, firstly, however, if, lastly, second, secondly, so, therefore, thus, well, whereas, while, on the other hand

Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments

Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 14.0 10.4613686534 134% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 3.0 5.04856512141 59% => OK
Conjunction : 14.0 7.30242825607 192% => OK
Relative clauses : 10.0 12.0772626932 83% => OK
Pronoun: 27.0 22.412803532 120% => Less pronouns wanted
Preposition: 27.0 30.3222958057 89% => OK
Nominalization: 2.0 5.01324503311 40% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.

Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1510.0 1373.03311258 110% => OK
No of words: 303.0 270.72406181 112% => OK
Chars per words: 4.98349834983 5.08290768461 98% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.17215713816 4.04702891845 103% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.40204631254 2.5805825403 93% => OK
Unique words: 150.0 145.348785872 103% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.49504950495 0.540411800872 92% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
syllable_count: 455.4 419.366225166 109% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK

A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 6.0 3.25607064018 184% => OK
Article: 9.0 8.23620309051 109% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 1.0 2.5761589404 39% => More preposition wanted as sentence beginning.

Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 19.0 13.0662251656 145% => OK
Sentence length: 15.0 21.2450331126 71% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively short.
Sentence length SD: 35.9705943308 49.2860985944 73% => OK
Chars per sentence: 79.4736842105 110.228320801 72% => OK
Words per sentence: 15.9473684211 21.698381199 73% => OK
Discourse Markers: 6.73684210526 7.06452816374 95% => OK
Paragraphs: 5.0 4.09492273731 122% => OK
Language errors: 3.0 4.19205298013 72% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 5.0 4.33554083885 115% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 5.0 4.45695364238 112% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 9.0 4.27373068433 211% => Less facts, knowledge or examples wanted.
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?

Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.255724116042 0.272083759551 94% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0799277330858 0.0996497079465 80% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0679404773065 0.0662205650399 103% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.134734962184 0.162205337803 83% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.07394122649 0.0443174109184 167% => OK

Essay readability:
automated_readability_index: 10.0 13.3589403974 75% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 64.71 53.8541721854 120% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 8.0 11.0289183223 73% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 11.31 12.2367328918 92% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 7.82 8.42419426049 93% => OK
difficult_words: 66.0 63.6247240618 104% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 9.0 10.7273730684 84% => OK
gunning_fog: 8.0 10.498013245 76% => OK
text_standard: 8.0 11.2008830022 71% => OK
What are above readability scores?

---------------------

Rates: 73.3333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 22.0 Out of 30
---------------------
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.

Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 3, column 137, Rule ID: ADJECTIVE_IN_ATTRIBUTE[1]
Message: A more concise phrase may lose no meaning and sound more powerful.
Suggestion: uniform
...ve measure system because the balls are uniform in size. Therefore, they were used to measure f...
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Line 3, column 174, Rule ID: ADMIT_ENJOY_VB[5]
Message: This verb is used with the gerund form: 'used to measuring'.
Suggestion: used to measuring
...e uniform in size. Therefore, they were used to measure food for the purpose of trading. Meanwh...
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Line 4, column 223, Rule ID: SOME_OF_THE[1]
Message: Simply use 'some'.
Suggestion: some
...rer disagrees with this and claims that some of the carved stone balls were very simple in ...
^^^^^^^^^^^

Transition Words or Phrases used:
accordingly, first, firstly, however, if, lastly, second, secondly, so, therefore, thus, well, whereas, while, on the other hand

Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments

Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 14.0 10.4613686534 134% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 3.0 5.04856512141 59% => OK
Conjunction : 14.0 7.30242825607 192% => OK
Relative clauses : 10.0 12.0772626932 83% => OK
Pronoun: 27.0 22.412803532 120% => Less pronouns wanted
Preposition: 27.0 30.3222958057 89% => OK
Nominalization: 2.0 5.01324503311 40% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.

Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1510.0 1373.03311258 110% => OK
No of words: 303.0 270.72406181 112% => OK
Chars per words: 4.98349834983 5.08290768461 98% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.17215713816 4.04702891845 103% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.40204631254 2.5805825403 93% => OK
Unique words: 150.0 145.348785872 103% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.49504950495 0.540411800872 92% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
syllable_count: 455.4 419.366225166 109% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK

A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 6.0 3.25607064018 184% => OK
Article: 9.0 8.23620309051 109% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 1.0 2.5761589404 39% => More preposition wanted as sentence beginning.

Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 19.0 13.0662251656 145% => OK
Sentence length: 15.0 21.2450331126 71% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively short.
Sentence length SD: 35.9705943308 49.2860985944 73% => OK
Chars per sentence: 79.4736842105 110.228320801 72% => OK
Words per sentence: 15.9473684211 21.698381199 73% => OK
Discourse Markers: 6.73684210526 7.06452816374 95% => OK
Paragraphs: 5.0 4.09492273731 122% => OK
Language errors: 3.0 4.19205298013 72% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 5.0 4.33554083885 115% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 5.0 4.45695364238 112% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 9.0 4.27373068433 211% => Less facts, knowledge or examples wanted.
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?

Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.255724116042 0.272083759551 94% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0799277330858 0.0996497079465 80% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0679404773065 0.0662205650399 103% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.134734962184 0.162205337803 83% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.07394122649 0.0443174109184 167% => OK

Essay readability:
automated_readability_index: 10.0 13.3589403974 75% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 64.71 53.8541721854 120% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 8.0 11.0289183223 73% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 11.31 12.2367328918 92% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 7.82 8.42419426049 93% => OK
difficult_words: 66.0 63.6247240618 104% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 9.0 10.7273730684 84% => OK
gunning_fog: 8.0 10.498013245 76% => OK
text_standard: 8.0 11.2008830022 71% => OK
What are above readability scores?

---------------------

Rates: 73.3333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 22.0 Out of 30
---------------------
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.