Every year, forest fires and severe storms cause a great deal of damage to forests in the northwestern United States. One way of dealing with the aftermath of these disasters is called salvage logging, which is the practice of removing dead trees from affected areas and using the wood for lumber, plywood, and other wood products. There are several reasons why salvage logging is beneficial both to a damaged forest and to the economy.
First, after a devastating fire, forests are choked with dead trees. If the trees are not removed, they will take years to decompose; in the meantime, no new trees can grow in the cramped spaces. Salvage logging, however, removes the remains of dead trees and makes room for fresh growth immediately, which is likely to help forest areas recover from the disaster.
Also, dead trees do more than just take up space. Decaying wood is a highly suitable habitat for insects such as the spruce bark beetle, which in large numbers can damage live, healthy spruce trees. So by removing rotting wood, salvage logging helps minimize the dangers of insect infestation, thus contributing to the health of the forest.
Third and last, salvage logging has economic benefits. Many industries depend upon the forests for their production, and because of this a fire can have a very harmful effect on the economy. Often, however, the trees that have been damaged by natural disasters still can provide much wood that is usable by industries. Furthermore, salvage logging requires more workers than traditional logging operations do, and so it helps create additional jobs for local residents.
The reading passage holds that salvage logging is beneficial for forests and the local economy and cites three supporting arguments. However, the speaker in the lecture casts doubt on the claims made in the article. She mentions that removal of dead trees could pose serious problems for the environment. In addition, its effect on the economy is questionable.
To start, the author posits that dead trees takes so many years to decompose and by eliminating them, more room would be available for new plants to grow. Nevertheless, the lecturer indicates that the old trees' decomposition enriches the soil with nutrients. Thus, the immediate cutting down of dead trees could lead to poor soil, which would not be able to support new growth.
Secondly, the writer contends that dead trees could be a habitat for harmful insects, such as Bruce bark beetle. Therefore, getting rid of rotting wood not only would clear up space but also would keep up the forest health against pests. Conversely, the professor in the lecture illustrates that Bruce bark beetles have lived in Alaskan forests for hundreds of years without any major damage. What's more, dead trees are also habitat for other useful species of birds and insects as well. By and large, according to the lecture, salvage logging has more disadvantages than advantages.
Lastly, the excerpt maintain that salvage logging would be helpful for the economy since it requires more workers than traditional logging. Moreover, the recovered wood would still be usable for some industries. In contrast, the lecturer challenges this point of view. She asserts that helicopters must be used to locate the dead trees in the forest. Consequently, the process would have a high cost to utilize these helicopters. One more point discussed in the lecture is that most jobs provided by salvage logging would be temporary and would go to outsiders who have training and experience not to the local community.
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 5, column 206, Rule ID: POSSESIVE_APOSTROPHE
Message: Possible typo: apostrophe is missing. Did you mean 'trees'' or 'tree's'?
Suggestion: trees'; tree's
...ss, the lecturer indicates that the old trees decomposition enriches the soil with nu...
Line 9, column 394, Rule ID: EN_CONTRACTION_SPELLING
Message: Possible spelling mistake found
...reds of years without any major damage. Whats more, dead trees are also habitat for o...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, but, consequently, conversely, however, lastly, moreover, nevertheless, second, secondly, so, still, therefore, thus, well, in addition, in contrast, such as, by and large
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 11.0 10.4613686534 105% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 13.0 5.04856512141 257% => Less auxiliary verb wanted.
Conjunction : 8.0 7.30242825607 110% => OK
Relative clauses : 11.0 12.0772626932 91% => OK
Pronoun: 16.0 22.412803532 71% => OK
Preposition: 36.0 30.3222958057 119% => OK
Nominalization: 4.0 5.01324503311 80% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1647.0 1373.03311258 120% => OK
No of words: 319.0 270.72406181 118% => OK
Chars per words: 5.16300940439 5.08290768461 102% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.22617688928 4.04702891845 104% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.60093271238 2.5805825403 101% => OK
Unique words: 186.0 145.348785872 128% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.583072100313 0.540411800872 108% => OK
syllable_count: 493.2 419.366225166 118% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 3.0 3.25607064018 92% => OK
Article: 11.0 8.23620309051 134% => OK
Subordination: 0.0 1.25165562914 0% => More adverbial clause wanted.
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 5.0 2.5761589404 194% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 18.0 13.0662251656 138% => OK
Sentence length: 17.0 21.2450331126 80% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively short.
Sentence length SD: 35.7389799988 49.2860985944 73% => OK
Chars per sentence: 91.5 110.228320801 83% => OK
Words per sentence: 17.7222222222 21.698381199 82% => OK
Discourse Markers: 9.83333333333 7.06452816374 139% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 2.0 4.19205298013 48% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 4.0 4.33554083885 92% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 10.0 4.45695364238 224% => Less negative sentences wanted.
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 4.0 4.27373068433 94% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.13611840621 0.272083759551 50% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0446057073659 0.0996497079465 45% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0319739836277 0.0662205650399 48% => Sentences are similar to each other.
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.0884106042147 0.162205337803 55% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.00711946925608 0.0443174109184 16% => Paragraphs are similar to each other. Some content may get duplicated or it is not exactly right on the topic.
automated_readability_index: 11.7 13.3589403974 88% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 62.68 53.8541721854 116% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 5.55761589404 158% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 8.7 11.0289183223 79% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 12.35 12.2367328918 101% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.69 8.42419426049 103% => OK
difficult_words: 85.0 63.6247240618 134% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 9.0 10.7273730684 84% => OK
gunning_fog: 8.8 10.498013245 84% => OK
text_standard: 9.0 11.2008830022 80% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 76.6666666667 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 23.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.