Many scientists believe it would be possible to maintain a permanent human presence on Mars or the Moon. On the other hand, conditions on Venus are so extreme and inhospitable that maintaining a human presence there would be impossible.
First, atmospheric pressure at Venus’ surface is at least 90 times greater than the pressure at Earth’s surface. This means that a force of 100 kilograms is pressing down on every square centimeter of surface. All spacecraft that have landed on Venus have been crushed by this extreme pressure within an hour of landing. Almost anything humans might land on Venus would be crushed as well.
Second, as far as we know, there are no reservoirs of water on Venus' surface, and the planet's atmosphere, made up mostly of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and sulfuric acid, contains hardly any oxygen or water vapor Water and oxygen would therefore probably have to be supplied to Venus from Earth. The idea of ensuring a regular supply of water and oxygen from Earth is impractical in the extreme and would probably defeat the purpose of establishing a permanent station on Venus.
Third, very little sunlight reaches the planet's surface. About 60 percent of the sunlight that hits Venus is reflected back into space by the thick clouds that fill the atmosphere, which means that only 40 percent of the sunlight can get through the clouds Below these clouds is a dense layer of carbon dioxide, which blocks even more light, so very little light reaches the surface. The lack of light would prevent the use of solar power cells, so humans could not get electricity to power their machines and equipment.
According to the reading material, three possible reasons are proposed to illustrate why humans can not ensure a permanent presence on Venus. The speaker, however, argues that the problems can be solved by establishing a station floating in the atmosphere, which casts great doubt on what the reading believes.
Firstly, the author suggests that things on the surface of Venus would be crushed due to the extreme high atmospheric pressure, which is about 90 times what it is on the surface of Earth. The speaker, however, insists that the pressure can be almost the same as the Earth's counterpart if people live in the station which is like a balloon and 50km above the surface. Thus, the potential possibility of being crushed can be eliminated.
Secondly, the author believes that humans are not capable of surviving on Venus due to the lack of oxygen and water vapor in its atmosphere. Although it is true with the conditions on the surface as stated above, oxygen and water can be produced in the station by some chemical process between compounds such as carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid, which is abundant in Venus's atmosphere, according to the listening material.
Thirdly, the concern lies in the shortage of electricity produced by solar power cells, which make use of the sunlight, as the majority of the sunlight are reflected back by thick clouds on Venus. Considering the situation of the station mentioned by the speaker, however, there are only few clouds that are not very thick. Therefore, it is possible to produce even more light by combining the electricity produced by the collection of both the sunlight and the reflected light using the solar power cells.
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 5, column 213, Rule ID: WHITESPACE_RULE
Message: Possible typo: you repeated a whitespace
...nditions on the surface as stated above, oxygen and water can be produced in the ...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
first, firstly, however, if, second, secondly, so, therefore, third, thirdly, thus, such as, it is true
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 17.0 10.4613686534 163% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 6.0 5.04856512141 119% => OK
Conjunction : 5.0 7.30242825607 68% => OK
Relative clauses : 10.0 12.0772626932 83% => OK
Pronoun: 9.0 22.412803532 40% => OK
Preposition: 43.0 30.3222958057 142% => OK
Nominalization: 7.0 5.01324503311 140% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1404.0 1373.03311258 102% => OK
No of words: 281.0 270.72406181 104% => OK
Chars per words: 4.99644128114 5.08290768461 98% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.09427095027 4.04702891845 101% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.6542413035 2.5805825403 103% => OK
Unique words: 147.0 145.348785872 101% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.523131672598 0.540411800872 97% => OK
syllable_count: 438.3 419.366225166 105% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.55342163355 103% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 1.0 3.25607064018 31% => OK
Article: 6.0 8.23620309051 73% => OK
Subordination: 2.0 1.25165562914 160% => OK
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 3.0 2.5761589404 116% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 10.0 13.0662251656 77% => Need more sentences. Double check the format of sentences, make sure there is a space between two sentences, or have enough periods. And also check the lengths of sentences, maybe they are too long.
Sentence length: 28.0 21.2450331126 132% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively long.
Sentence length SD: 52.8186520085 49.2860985944 107% => OK
Chars per sentence: 140.4 110.228320801 127% => OK
Words per sentence: 28.1 21.698381199 130% => OK
Discourse Markers: 10.3 7.06452816374 146% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 1.0 4.19205298013 24% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 2.0 4.33554083885 46% => More positive sentences wanted.
Sentences with negative sentiment : 6.0 4.45695364238 135% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 2.0 4.27373068433 47% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.178706523024 0.272083759551 66% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0737197627943 0.0996497079465 74% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0610262148765 0.0662205650399 92% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.104696561515 0.162205337803 65% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0561356854379 0.0443174109184 127% => OK
automated_readability_index: 16.2 13.3589403974 121% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 43.06 53.8541721854 80% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 14.2 11.0289183223 129% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 12.02 12.2367328918 98% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 9.13 8.42419426049 108% => OK
difficult_words: 73.0 63.6247240618 115% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 13.0 10.7273730684 121% => OK
gunning_fog: 13.2 10.498013245 126% => OK
text_standard: 13.0 11.2008830022 116% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 80.0 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 24.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.