Pterosaurs were an ancient group of winged reptiles that lived alongside the dinosaurs Many pterosaurs were very large some as large as a giraffe and with a wingspan of over 12 meters Paleontologists have long wondered whether large pterosaurs were capabl

Essay topics:

Pterosaurs were an ancient group of winged reptiles that lived alongside the dinosaurs. Many pterosaurs were very large, some as large as a giraffe and with a wingspan of over 12 meters. Paleontologists have long wondered whether large pterosaurs were capable of powered flight (flying by flapping their wings) or whether they were able only to glide. Several arguments have been made against powered flight.

Doubters point out that since modern reptiles are cold-blooded, ancient reptiles such as pterosaurs were probably cold-blooded as well. Cold-blooded animals typically have a slow metabolism and are unable to produce a lot of energy. Powered flight is an activity requiring a lot of energy, which is why all modern vertebrates that fly are warm-blooded, not cold-blooded. It seemed unlikely that pterosaurs would have been able to generate the energy needed to fly.

Second, there is a limit to the weight of animals that can be kept airborne by powered flight. Pterosaurs that were as large as a giraffe were probably so heavy that they would not have been able to flap their wings fast enough to stay aloft for any length of time.

Third, all animals with powered flight are able to take off from the ground. For example, birds take off by jumping from their legs or running to gain speed and then jumping. But these methods would not have worked for large pterosaurs. Large pterosaurs would have needed big, powerful muscles in their back legs to launch themselves into the air, and we know from fossilized bones that their back leg muscles were too small and weak to allow the pterosaurs to run fast enough or jump high enough to launch themselves into the air.

The article and lecture are both about the Pterosaurs. The author presents three theories about why pterosaurs are not able to fly. The lecturer disputes the claims made in the article His position is that they are all incorrect.

According to the reading most of the modern reptiles found in the Earth are cold blooded. Since Pterosaurs are reptiles the reading states that it must be a cold blooded animal too. Since being a cold blooded animal it have a slow metabolism and cannot generate enough energy. The article mentions that it requires high amount to energy for powered flight which the pterosaurs are not able to generate, therefore it cannot fly. The argument is challenged by the lecturer. He claims that from the finding of the fossil of Pterosaurs, it was discovered that their body are covered with dense hair, which is present in the warm blooded animals due to which the lecturer states that it is indeed a warm blooded animal. Additionally she pointed out that warm blooded animal have metabolism as a result they can generate enough energy for the flight, therefore Pterosaurs are able the power of flight.

Secondly the author suggests that the power flight is limited by the weight of the animals. Since the Pterosaurs are the size of giraffe, so they have large body mass which make flapping their wings near impossible. In article, it is said that since the Pterosaurs are not able to flap their wings it will be impossible to stay aloft in the air. The lecturer however, asserts that Pterosaurs have anatomical feature. They have hollow bones due to which they have less body weight as compared to its physical size. She goes on to say that because of it light weight they are able to keep themselves airborne by flapping their wings.

Finally, the author posits that power flight demands well developed and powerful muscle in their back leg to lunch them from the ground during the takeoff. However from the finding of the fossil of Pterosaurs, they have small and weak back leg. He contends that, because it lack well developed back leg is crucial for flight they cannot leap off the ground which is essential for the flight. In contrast. The lecturer stance is Pterosaurs uses its four leg for survival. So they use all the legs which can easily increase their speed and can make them jump higher during the process of the takeoff.

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Average: 7.3 (1 vote)
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 1, column 133, Rule ID: ENGLISH_WORD_REPEAT_BEGINNING_RULE
Message: Three successive sentences begin with the same word. Reword the sentence or use a thesaurus to find a synonym.
...out why pterosaurs are not able to fly. The lecturer disputes the claims made in th...
^^^
Line 3, column 91, Rule ID: SENTENCE_FRAGMENT[1]
Message: “Since” at the beginning of a sentence requires a 2nd clause. Maybe a comma, question or exclamation mark is missing, or the sentence is incomplete and should be joined with the following sentence.
...es found in the Earth are cold blooded. Since Pterosaurs are reptiles the reading sta...
^^^^^
Line 3, column 220, Rule ID: IT_VBZ[1]
Message: Did you mean 'has'?
Suggestion: has
...o. Since being a cold blooded animal it have a slow metabolism and cannot generate e...
^^^^
Line 3, column 716, Rule ID: SENT_START_CONJUNCTIVE_LINKING_ADVERB_COMMA[1]
Message: Did you forget a comma after a conjunctive/linking adverb?
Suggestion: Additionally,
...hat it is indeed a warm blooded animal. Additionally she pointed out that warm blooded anima...
^^^^^^^^^^^^
Line 5, column 553, Rule ID: LIGHT_WEIGHT[1]
Message: Did you mean 'lightweight'?
Suggestion: lightweight
.... She goes on to say that because of it light weight they are able to keep themselves airbor...
^^^^^^^^^^^^
Line 7, column 157, Rule ID: SENT_START_CONJUNCTIVE_LINKING_ADVERB_COMMA[1]
Message: Did you forget a comma after a conjunctive/linking adverb?
Suggestion: However,
...hem from the ground during the takeoff. However from the finding of the fossil of Ptero...
^^^^^^^
Line 7, column 275, Rule ID: IT_VBZ[1]
Message: Did you mean 'lacks'?
Suggestion: lacks
... back leg. He contends that, because it lack well developed back leg is crucial for ...
^^^^
Line 7, column 396, Rule ID: SENT_START_CONJUNCTIVE_LINKING_ADVERB_COMMA[2]
Message: Did you forget a comma after a conjunctive/linking adverb?
Suggestion: contrast,
...d which is essential for the flight. In contrast. The lecturer stance is Pterosaurs uses...
^^^^^^^^

Transition Words or Phrases used:
finally, however, second, secondly, so, therefore, well, in contrast, as a result

Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments

Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 24.0 10.4613686534 229% => Less to be verbs wanted.
Auxiliary verbs: 8.0 5.04856512141 158% => OK
Conjunction : 5.0 7.30242825607 68% => OK
Relative clauses : 20.0 12.0772626932 166% => OK
Pronoun: 48.0 22.412803532 214% => Less pronouns wanted
Preposition: 48.0 30.3222958057 158% => OK
Nominalization: 2.0 5.01324503311 40% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.

Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1962.0 1373.03311258 143% => OK
No of words: 409.0 270.72406181 151% => Less content wanted.
Chars per words: 4.79706601467 5.08290768461 94% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.49708221141 4.04702891845 111% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.34233657089 2.5805825403 91% => OK
Unique words: 182.0 145.348785872 125% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.444987775061 0.540411800872 82% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
syllable_count: 599.4 419.366225166 143% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK

A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 7.0 3.25607064018 215% => Less pronouns wanted as sentence beginning.
Article: 8.0 8.23620309051 97% => OK
Subordination: 4.0 1.25165562914 320% => Less adverbial clause wanted.
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 6.0 2.5761589404 233% => Less preposition wanted as sentence beginnings.

Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 21.0 13.0662251656 161% => OK
Sentence length: 19.0 21.2450331126 89% => OK
Sentence length SD: 48.646494272 49.2860985944 99% => OK
Chars per sentence: 93.4285714286 110.228320801 85% => OK
Words per sentence: 19.4761904762 21.698381199 90% => OK
Discourse Markers: 3.85714285714 7.06452816374 55% => More transition words/phrases wanted.
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 8.0 4.19205298013 191% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 5.0 4.33554083885 115% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 6.0 4.45695364238 135% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 11.0 4.27373068433 257% => Less facts, knowledge or examples wanted.
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?

Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.11240657508 0.272083759551 41% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0389464487 0.0996497079465 39% => Sentence topic similarity is low.
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0462713253126 0.0662205650399 70% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.0691034675055 0.162205337803 43% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0408536640343 0.0443174109184 92% => OK

Essay readability:
automated_readability_index: 10.9 13.3589403974 82% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 60.65 53.8541721854 113% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 9.5 11.0289183223 86% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 10.56 12.2367328918 86% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 7.44 8.42419426049 88% => OK
difficult_words: 74.0 63.6247240618 116% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 6.0 10.7273730684 56% => Linsear_write_formula is low.
gunning_fog: 9.6 10.498013245 91% => OK
text_standard: 11.0 11.2008830022 98% => OK
What are above readability scores?

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Rates: 73.3333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 22.0 Out of 30
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Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.