READING PASSAGEWildlife crossings are structures built to allow animals to cross human-made barriers safely. These crossings promote habitat conservation by allowing connections and reconnections between habitats to avoid habitat fragmentation. They also

Essay topics:


Wildlife crossings are structures built to allow animals to cross human-made barriers safely. These crossings promote habitat conservation by allowing connections and reconnections between habitats to avoid habitat fragmentation. They also lower instances of collisions between animals and vehicles that cause injury, and sometimes death, to both wildlife and humans. While the conservation benefits created by these structures are a priority of several groups, they are not as useful as they seem.

First of all, animals cannot train themselves to use crossings like we do. If the animals cannot make use of the crossings, the crossings are considered useless. Also, research suggests that animals living in the wild are often reluctant to cross these crossings to mingle with other populations.

Secondly, because the crossings are useless, they become a waste of financial resources. Wildlife crossing includes structures such as underpass tunnels, viaducts, overpasses, amphibian tunnels, fish ladders, and green roofs. Each of these structures requires money to build, but because of the uselessness of the structures they become just another financial waste for the country building them.

And finally, the developed areas that create the wildlife crossings are damaged and prevent wild animals from reproducing. While loss of habitat, road kill, and isolation from resources exert pressure on various animal populations by reducing available resources and killing individuals in the populations, Bennet (1991) found that road kills do not pose a significant threat to healthy populations and are only devastating to threatened populations.


While what you just read about building wildlife crossings is true, a re-evaluation of the evidence has provided some new conclusions. First of all, animals will adapt. Even though it isn't always immediately evident, it will show the learned behavior over time. If an animal becomes aware that a certain path is easier or safer for them they are more likely to follow that path. Second, the cost of repairing property damage caused by animal and human collisions is greater than the cost of adding wildlife crossings to road projects and the subsequent maintenance. One study estimated that the addition of wildlife crossing to road projects is only a 7-8% increase in the cost of the project. These costs are also minor compared to the importance of protecting the wildlife population, reducing property damage to vehicles, and saving live of drivers and passengers are minimal. And finally, these crossing help reproduction of animals instead of hindering it. By reconnecting the fragments of wildlife territories through these crossing, animals have an easier time reaching resources and mates that they would not have had access to if the environment remained fragmented.

The reading and lecture are both about the wildlife crossing. The author of the reading is of the opinion that wildlife crossings are not useful for animals for several reasons.; however, the lecturer rebuts the claim of the author. He believes that wildlife crossings are very useful for animals. The lecturer cast the doubt on the main point by providing three reasons.

First of all, the author argues that animals can not train themselves to use the crossings as humans do; furthermore, he mentions that research suggests that animal animals living in the wild are often reluctant to cross these crossings to mingle with other populations; howbeit, this argument is challenged by the lecturer. He claims that animals will adapt themselves with the passage of time and learns to use the wildlife crossings.

Besides, the reading states that wildlife crossings become a waste of financial resources as such crossings require lot of money to build; nonetheless, the lecturer refutes the claim of the author by mentioning that wildlife structures benefit both animals and humans. He further states that trough these structures we can minimize the accidents occurred on the roads.

Finally, the author posits that the wildlife crossings are damaged and prevent wild animals from reproducing; nevertheless, the lecturer refutes the statement of the author. He believes that wildlife crossings help the wild animals for reproducing; moreover, he states that such crossings reconnect the two ways of forests and lead easily for wild animals to meet their mates.; therefore, wildlife crossings benefits wild animals in the long run.

Average: 7.3 (1 vote)
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2020-01-08 Manu2525 73 view
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Transition Words or Phrases used:
besides, but, finally, first, furthermore, however, if, moreover, nevertheless, nonetheless, so, therefore, first of all

Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments

Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 7.0 10.4613686534 67% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 3.0 5.04856512141 59% => OK
Conjunction : 5.0 7.30242825607 68% => OK
Relative clauses : 12.0 12.0772626932 99% => OK
Pronoun: 25.0 22.412803532 112% => OK
Preposition: 27.0 30.3222958057 89% => OK
Nominalization: 2.0 5.01324503311 40% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.

Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1385.0 1373.03311258 101% => OK
No of words: 258.0 270.72406181 95% => OK
Chars per words: 5.36821705426 5.08290768461 106% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.00778971557 4.04702891845 99% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.63254775338 2.5805825403 102% => OK
Unique words: 126.0 145.348785872 87% => More unique words wanted.
Unique words percentage: 0.488372093023 0.540411800872 90% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
syllable_count: 414.0 419.366225166 99% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.55342163355 103% => OK

A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 7.0 3.25607064018 215% => Less pronouns wanted as sentence beginning.
Article: 9.0 8.23620309051 109% => OK
Subordination: 0.0 1.25165562914 0% => More adverbial clause wanted.
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 0.0 2.5761589404 0% => More preposition wanted as sentence beginning.

Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 10.0 13.0662251656 77% => Need more sentences. Double check the format of sentences, make sure there is a space between two sentences, or have enough periods. And also check the lengths of sentences, maybe they are too long.
Sentence length: 25.0 21.2450331126 118% => OK
Sentence length SD: 91.683422711 49.2860985944 186% => OK
Chars per sentence: 138.5 110.228320801 126% => OK
Words per sentence: 25.8 21.698381199 119% => OK
Discourse Markers: 12.0 7.06452816374 170% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 0.0 4.19205298013 0% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 3.0 4.33554083885 69% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 5.0 4.45695364238 112% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 2.0 4.27373068433 47% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?

Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.202210911226 0.272083759551 74% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0877938385153 0.0996497079465 88% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0606872657416 0.0662205650399 92% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.141646569186 0.162205337803 87% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.026332731288 0.0443174109184 59% => OK

Essay readability:
automated_readability_index: 16.8 13.3589403974 126% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 46.1 53.8541721854 86% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 13.0 11.0289183223 118% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 14.16 12.2367328918 116% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.55 8.42419426049 101% => OK
difficult_words: 60.0 63.6247240618 94% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 9.0 10.7273730684 84% => OK
gunning_fog: 12.0 10.498013245 114% => OK
text_standard: 9.0 11.2008830022 80% => OK
What are above readability scores?


Rates: 73.3333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 22.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.