The reading and the listening are both about the purpose of carved stone balls found in Scotland. The passage believes there are three possible theories of the usage of carved stone balls. However, the professor refutes all of the claims made in the article, and she provides three arguments as follows.
To begin with, the author in the article points out that primitive tribes might used carved stone balls as weapons for hunting or fighting. Nonetheless, the lecturer challenged the point by mentioning that in general, those carved stone balls would be cracked or pieced if used for attack. However, those stones were found well-preserved or only little damage on. Therefore, this theory is unconvincing for sure.
Second, the article contends that carved stone balled was regarded as system of weights and measures because they are uniform in size. Conversely, the lecturer states that carved stone balls are made by different types of materials such as limestone or sand. That is to say, those stone balls have different density and different weight though their sizes look similar. As a result, it's impossible for the primitive weight system.
Last, the passage maintains that carved stone balled were viewed as a social purpose because of the elaborate designs. Nonetheless, the professor disagrees with the statement, and she mentions that the design of carved stone balls are simple, which means they are not delicate enough for the higher class. Besides, in old times, some british who died with high ranking would be buried with their precious possessions. However, researchers don't find carved stone balls in any tombs or graves. Hence,those stone balls are not used for social purpose in community.