The reading and the lecture are both about pterosaurs, which are ancient reptiles with wings. The author of the reading believes that they were unable to fly flapping their wings like birds. The lecturer casts doubt on all the claims made in the article and provides arguments to support the fact that pterosaurs actually could fly.
First of all, the author points out that because reptiles are cold-blooded animals they do not have a fast metabolism to produce the adequate amount of energy required to fly. This point is challenged by the lecturer. He says that recently founded fossils showed that pterosaurs have had tiny hairs reminding birds fur and that fact prove that they were warm-blooded and could readily generate ample amount of energy.
Secondly, the author contends that pterosaurs big mass deterred them from flapping their wings fast enough to fly. The professor rebuts this argument by saying that they had hollow bones which means they were not heavy and could stay aloft.
Finally, the author states that unlike birds pterosaurs had small and weak back leg muscles that could not be used to run fast and take off from the ground. The lecturer, on the other hand, posits that they were walking on four legs and used them all to launch into the air not only the back ones. So this means that they had the needed power to jump and take off.
- TPO-14 - Integrated Writing Task Every year, forest fires and severe stormscause a great deal of damage to forests in the northwestern United States. One way of dealing with the aftermath of these disasters is called salvage logging, which is the practice 75
- TPO-47 - Integrated Writing Task Pterosaurs were an ancient group of winged reptiles that lived alongside the dinosaurs. Many pterosaurs were very large, some as large as a giraffe and with a wingspan of over 12 meters. Paleontologists have long wondered 78
- TPO-43 - Integrated Writing Task Agnostids were a group of marine animals that became extinct about 450 million years ago. Agnostid fossils can be found in rocks in many areas around the world. From the fossil remains, we know that agnostids were primitiv 85
- Some people prefer to settle down and start a family in a rural area. Other people prefer the convenience of the big city. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion 60
- TPO 45: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? In the past, young people depended too much on their parents to make decisions for them; today young people are better able to make decisions about their own lives. Use specific reasons and ex 60
Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 1, column 192, Rule ID: ENGLISH_WORD_REPEAT_BEGINNING_RULE
Message: Three successive sentences begin with the same word. Reword the sentence or use a thesaurus to find a synonym.
...to fly flapping their wings like birds. The lecturer casts doubt on all the claims ...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
actually, but, finally, first, second, secondly, so, first of all, on the other hand
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 9.0 10.4613686534 86% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 4.0 5.04856512141 79% => OK
Conjunction : 9.0 7.30242825607 123% => OK
Relative clauses : 15.0 12.0772626932 124% => OK
Pronoun: 28.0 22.412803532 125% => Less pronouns wanted
Preposition: 27.0 30.3222958057 89% => OK
Nominalization: 1.0 5.01324503311 20% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1133.0 1373.03311258 83% => OK
No of words: 236.0 270.72406181 87% => More content wanted.
Chars per words: 4.80084745763 5.08290768461 94% => OK
Fourth root words length: 3.91947592106 4.04702891845 97% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.14144929539 2.5805825403 83% => OK
Unique words: 135.0 145.348785872 93% => More unique words wanted.
Unique words percentage: 0.572033898305 0.540411800872 106% => OK
syllable_count: 329.4 419.366225166 79% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.4 1.55342163355 90% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 2.0 3.25607064018 61% => OK
Article: 8.0 8.23620309051 97% => OK
Subordination: 0.0 1.25165562914 0% => More adverbial clause wanted.
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 1.0 2.5761589404 39% => More preposition wanted as sentence beginning.
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 11.0 13.0662251656 84% => Need more sentences. Double check the format of sentences, make sure there is a space between two sentences, or have enough periods. And also check the lengths of sentences, maybe they are too long.
Sentence length: 21.0 21.2450331126 99% => OK
Sentence length SD: 44.5834717178 49.2860985944 90% => OK
Chars per sentence: 103.0 110.228320801 93% => OK
Words per sentence: 21.4545454545 21.698381199 99% => OK
Discourse Markers: 7.63636363636 7.06452816374 108% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 1.0 4.19205298013 24% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 4.0 4.33554083885 92% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 4.0 4.45695364238 90% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 3.0 4.27373068433 70% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.375935404714 0.272083759551 138% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.130767911683 0.0996497079465 131% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0557894435629 0.0662205650399 84% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.21905491082 0.162205337803 135% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0287867382946 0.0443174109184 65% => OK
automated_readability_index: 11.9 13.3589403974 89% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 67.08 53.8541721854 125% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 9.1 11.0289183223 83% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 10.56 12.2367328918 86% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.02 8.42419426049 95% => OK
difficult_words: 50.0 63.6247240618 79% => More difficult words wanted.
linsear_write_formula: 7.5 10.7273730684 70% => OK
gunning_fog: 10.4 10.498013245 99% => OK
text_standard: 8.0 11.2008830022 71% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 78.3333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 23.5 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.