Many scientists believe it would be possible to maintain a permanent human presence on Mars or the Moon. On the other hand, conditions on Venus are so extreme and inhospitable that maintaining a human presence there would be impossible. First, atmospheric pressure at Venus' surface is at least 90 times greater than the pressure at Earth’s surface. This means that a force of 100 kilograms is pressing down on every square centimeter of surface. All spacecraft that have landed on Venus have been crushed by this extreme pressure within an hour of landing. Almost anything humans might land on Venus would be crushed as well. Second, as far as we know, there are no reservoirs of water on Venus’ surface, and the planet’s atmosphere, made up mostly of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and sulfuric acid, contains hardly any oxygen or water vapor. Water and oxygen would therefore probably have to be supplied to Venus from Earth. The idea of ensuring a regular supply of water and oxygen from Earth is impractical in the extreme and would probably defeat the purpose of establishing a permanent station on Venus. Third, very little sunlight reaches the planet’s surface. About 60 percent of the sunlight that hits Venus is reflected back into space by the thick clouds that fill the atmosphere, which means that only 40 percent of the sunlight can get through the clouds. Below these clouds is a dense layer of carbon dioxide, which blocks even more light, so very little light reaches the surface. The lack of light would prevent the use of solar power cells, so humans could not get electricity to power their machines and equipment.
The main idea of both the passage and the lecture is about maintaining a human presence. In this line of thought, the reading states that the main idea is impossible because atmospheric pressure, water and oxygen, and the light blocking clouds. The lecturer, on the other hand, casts doubt on all of the three episodes of arguments mentioned in the passage, believing that none of these strategies are practical and lead to the real world. In the rest of the passage, a comparison between them is provided.
First of all, the reading and the listening materials talk about atmospheric pressure. The author explains that atmospheric pressure at Venus' surface is at least 90 times greater than the pressure at Earth’s surface. Thus, the author contends that this means that a force of 100 kilograms is pressing down on every square centimeter of surface. On the contrary, the lecturer believes that the pressure of the atmosphere in Venus’s land is equal to the pressure in the Earth’s land; thus, atmosphere pressure is not a dilemma. This directly contradicts what the passage indicates.
Second, both the text and the talk discuss water and oxygen. The author points out that there are no reservoirs of water on Venus’ surface, and the planet’s atmosphere, made up mostly of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and sulfuric acid, contains hardly any oxygen or water vapor. Therefore, the author elaborates that Water and oxygen would therefore probably have to be supplied to Venus from Earth. The idea of ensuring a regular supply of water and oxygen from Earth is impractical in the extreme and would probably defeat the purpose of establishing a permanent station on Venus. However, the lecturer notes that some chemical procedures need to transmute the carbon dioxide to water and oxygen. Therefore, the professor rejects passage claim and provide one solution to solve the shortage of water and oxygen on the Venus.
Eventually, the light blocking clouds which are discussed by both the passage and the lecture. The author mentions that the lack of light would prevent the use of solar power cells, so humans could not get electricity to power their machines and equipment. Hence, the author suggests that very little sunlight reaches the planet’s surface. The lecturer rebuts this argument. The lecturer states that the clouds which are in the above level are not very thick. Also, some solar station can gather missed sunlight and reflect them into the Venus. This opinion directly contradicts the passage presented.
Sum up, although the passage provides some reasons for the impossibility of maintaining a human presence, the lecture opposes about the effectiveness and possibility of those reasons.
Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 1, column 294, Rule ID: ALL_OF_THE
Message: Simply use 'all the'.
Suggestion: all the
...urer, on the other hand, casts doubt on all of the three episodes of arguments mentioned i...
Line 5, column 243, Rule ID: ADVERB_WORD_ORDER
Message: The adverb 'hardly' is usually put before the verb 'contains'.
Suggestion: hardly contains
...n dioxide, nitrogen, and sulfuric acid, contains hardly any oxygen or water vapor. Therefore, t...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, but, first, hence, however, second, so, therefore, thus, at least, first of all, on the contrary, on the other hand
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 14.0 10.4613686534 134% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 6.0 5.04856512141 119% => OK
Conjunction : 20.0 7.30242825607 274% => Less conjunction wanted
Relative clauses : 14.0 12.0772626932 116% => OK
Pronoun: 22.0 22.412803532 98% => OK
Preposition: 58.0 30.3222958057 191% => OK
Nominalization: 7.0 5.01324503311 140% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 2304.0 1373.03311258 168% => OK
No of words: 440.0 270.72406181 163% => Less content wanted.
Chars per words: 5.23636363636 5.08290768461 103% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.57997565096 4.04702891845 113% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.71995609469 2.5805825403 105% => OK
Unique words: 219.0 145.348785872 151% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.497727272727 0.540411800872 92% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
syllable_count: 721.8 419.366225166 172% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.55342163355 103% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 2.0 3.25607064018 61% => OK
Article: 19.0 8.23620309051 231% => Less articles wanted as sentence beginning.
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 3.0 1.51434878587 198% => OK
Preposition: 4.0 2.5761589404 155% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 23.0 13.0662251656 176% => OK
Sentence length: 19.0 21.2450331126 89% => OK
Sentence length SD: 51.4636803676 49.2860985944 104% => OK
Chars per sentence: 100.173913043 110.228320801 91% => OK
Words per sentence: 19.1304347826 21.698381199 88% => OK
Discourse Markers: 5.26086956522 7.06452816374 74% => OK
Paragraphs: 5.0 4.09492273731 122% => OK
Language errors: 2.0 4.19205298013 48% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 0.0 4.33554083885 0% => More positive sentences wanted.
Sentences with negative sentiment : 15.0 4.45695364238 337% => Less negative sentences wanted.
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 8.0 4.27373068433 187% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.151847263479 0.272083759551 56% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0378827207814 0.0996497079465 38% => Sentence topic similarity is low.
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0447831001852 0.0662205650399 68% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.0816564720014 0.162205337803 50% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0189785582556 0.0443174109184 43% => Paragraphs are similar to each other. Some content may get duplicated or it is not exactly right on the topic.
automated_readability_index: 12.8 13.3589403974 96% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 52.19 53.8541721854 97% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 10.7 11.0289183223 97% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 13.11 12.2367328918 107% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.6 8.42419426049 102% => OK
difficult_words: 112.0 63.6247240618 176% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 11.0 10.7273730684 103% => OK
gunning_fog: 9.6 10.498013245 91% => OK
text_standard: 11.0 11.2008830022 98% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Write the essay in 20 minutes.
Rates: 71.6666666667 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 21.5 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.