Altruism is a type of behavior in which an animal sacrifices its own interest for that of another animal or group of animals. Altruism is the opposite of selfishness; individuals performing altruistic acts gain nothing for themselves.Examples of altruism

Essay topics:

Altruism is a type of behavior in which an animal sacrifices its own interest for that of another animal or group of animals. Altruism is the opposite of selfishness; individuals performing altruistic acts gain nothing for themselves.

Examples of altruism abound, both among humans and among other mammals. Unselfish acts among humans range from the sharing of food with strangers to the donation of body organs to family members, and even to strangers. Such acts are altruistic in that they benefit another, yet provide little reward to the one performing the act.In fact, many species of animals appear willing to sacrifice food, or even their life, to assist other members of their group.

The meerkat, which is a mammal that dwells in burrows in grassland areas of Africa, is often cited as an example. In groups of meerkats, an individual acts as a sentinel, standing guard and looking out for predators while the others hunt for food or eat food they have obtained. If the sentinel meerkat sees a predator such as a hawk approaching the group, it gives an alarm cry alerting the other meerkats to run and seek shelter. By standing guard,the sentinel meerkat gains nothing—it goes without food while the others eat, and it places itself in grave danger. After it issues an alarm, it has to flee alone, which might make it more at risk to a predator, since animals in groups are often able to work together to fend off a predator. So the altruistic sentinel behavior helps ensure the survival of other members of the meerkat’s group.

Listening Script:

You know, often in science, new findings force us to re-examine earlier beliefs and assumptions.

And a recent study of meerkats is having exactly this effect. The study examined the meerkat’s behavior quite closely, much more closely than had ever been done before. And some interesting things were found . . . like about eating habits . . . it showed that typically meerkats eat before they stand guard—so the ones standing guard had a full stomach! And the study also found that since the sentinel is the first to see a predator coming, it’s the most likely to escape . . . because it often stands guard near a burrow, so it can run immediately into the burrow after giving the alarm.

The other meerkats, the ones scattered about looking for food, are actually in greater danger. And in fact, other studies have suggested that when an animal creates an alarm,the alarm call might cause the other group members either to gather together or else to move about very quickly, behaviours that might actually draw the predator’s attention away from the caller, increasing that animal’s own chances of survival.

And what about people—what about some human acts that might be considered altruistic? Let’s take an extreme case, uh, suppose a person donates a kidney to a relative, or even to a complete stranger. A selfless act, right? But . . . doesn’t the donor receive appreciation and approval from the stranger and from society? Doesn’t the donor gain an increased sense of self-worth? Couldn’t such non-material rewards be considered very valuable to some people?

The reading passage it is relate to altruism and how it can be done by humans and animals. Specifically, it explains this concept could be understood as a perform actions that benefits a relatives or, even, a strangers without receive a reward for it. As an example, the passage mention the case of the meerkats as a great illustration of the altruism, which a member of its group has always a role who encourage it doing a sacrifice for the herd. However, the professor is not agree with the paragraphs and give some arguments to put her position.

First of all, the text describes that sentinel meerkat do not eat anything when it looks out for the presence of predators, so the effort that it make is tremendous. The teacher is against this proposition and argues that guard meerkat is usually one of the part of the herd who ingest early. As a result, it is not starving when complies its responsibilities.

The author also claims that the sentinel has no time to run when it find a hawk close, because it starts to use its alarm to warn the group. The lecturer believes that even it makes that, it is not true the statement. Again, she tells that after the alarm cry, the guard immediately would keep save in a safe place while the rest of the group must stop their activities and then begin to find where it is a suitable site to scape.

Finally, the book states that performing the alarm cry become the sentinel meerkat more vulnerable to the predator. professor thinks that this is not accurate because when the alarm cry was activated, it is create a big confusion on the group. In consequence, the hawk can observes the group of the meerkat are worried for its presence and try to attack them before that the sentinel, who knows the path of the predator.

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Average: 8.1 (1 vote)
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Comments

Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 1, column 27, Rule ID: BEEN_PART_AGREEMENT[1]
Message: Consider using a past participle here: 'related'.
Suggestion: related
The reading passage it is relate to altruism and how it can be done by h...
^^^^^^
Line 1, column 154, Rule ID: A_INFINITVE[1]
Message: Probably a wrong construction: a/the + infinitive
...ins this concept could be understood as a perform actions that benefits a relatives or, e...
^^^^^^^^^
Line 1, column 186, Rule ID: A_PLURAL[1]
Message: Don't use indefinite articles with plural words. Did you mean 'a relative' or simply 'relatives'?
Suggestion: a relative; relatives
...tood as a perform actions that benefits a relatives or, even, a strangers without receive a...
^^^^^^^^^^^
Line 1, column 208, Rule ID: A_PLURAL[1]
Message: Don't use indefinite articles with plural words. Did you mean 'a stranger' or simply 'strangers'?
Suggestion: a stranger; strangers
...ons that benefits a relatives or, even, a strangers without receive a reward for it. As an ...
^^^^^^^^^^^
Line 1, column 479, Rule ID: BEEN_PART_AGREEMENT[2]
Message: Consider using a past participle here: 'agreed'.
Suggestion: agreed
...the herd. However, the professor is not agree with the paragraphs and give some argum...
^^^^^
Line 9, column 69, Rule ID: IT_VBZ[1]
Message: Did you mean 'finds'?
Suggestion: finds
...the sentinel has no time to run when it find a hawk close, because it starts to use ...
^^^^
Line 13, column 117, Rule ID: UPPERCASE_SENTENCE_START
Message: This sentence does not start with an uppercase letter
Suggestion: Professor
...eerkat more vulnerable to the predator. professor thinks that this is not accurate becaus...
^^^^^^^^^
Line 13, column 208, Rule ID: BEEN_PART_AGREEMENT[1]
Message: Consider using a past participle here: 'created'.
Suggestion: created
...when the alarm cry was activated, it is create a big confusion on the group. In conseq...
^^^^^^
Line 13, column 274, Rule ID: DID_BASEFORM[2]
Message: The verb 'can' requires the base form of the verb: 'observe'
Suggestion: observe
...the group. In consequence, the hawk can observes the group of the meerkat are worried fo...
^^^^^^^^
Line 13, column 312, Rule ID: WORRY_FOR[1]
Message: The verb 'worry' does not normally take the preposition 'for'. Did you mean 'worried about'?
Suggestion: worried about
...n observes the group of the meerkat are worried for its presence and try to attack them bef...
^^^^^^^^^^^

Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, finally, first, however, if, look, so, then, while, as a result, first of all

Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments

Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 14.0 10.4613686534 134% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 5.0 5.04856512141 99% => OK
Conjunction : 7.0 7.30242825607 96% => OK
Relative clauses : 20.0 12.0772626932 166% => OK
Pronoun: 36.0 22.412803532 161% => Less pronouns wanted
Preposition: 29.0 30.3222958057 96% => OK
Nominalization: 8.0 5.01324503311 160% => OK

Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1461.0 1373.03311258 106% => OK
No of words: 319.0 270.72406181 118% => OK
Chars per words: 4.57993730408 5.08290768461 90% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.22617688928 4.04702891845 104% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.58496597948 2.5805825403 100% => OK
Unique words: 177.0 145.348785872 122% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.554858934169 0.540411800872 103% => OK
syllable_count: 453.6 419.366225166 108% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.4 1.55342163355 90% => OK

A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 5.0 3.25607064018 154% => OK
Article: 11.0 8.23620309051 134% => OK
Subordination: 3.0 1.25165562914 240% => Less adverbial clause wanted.
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 1.0 2.5761589404 39% => More preposition wanted as sentence beginning.

Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 13.0 13.0662251656 99% => OK
Sentence length: 24.0 21.2450331126 113% => OK
Sentence length SD: 43.5512348754 49.2860985944 88% => OK
Chars per sentence: 112.384615385 110.228320801 102% => OK
Words per sentence: 24.5384615385 21.698381199 113% => OK
Discourse Markers: 6.38461538462 7.06452816374 90% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 10.0 4.19205298013 239% => Less language errors wanted.
Sentences with positive sentiment : 2.0 4.33554083885 46% => More positive sentences wanted.
Sentences with negative sentiment : 9.0 4.45695364238 202% => Less negative sentences wanted.
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 2.0 4.27373068433 47% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?

Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.161485827868 0.272083759551 59% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0524992044459 0.0996497079465 53% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0602782392427 0.0662205650399 91% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.0895071381303 0.162205337803 55% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.073586238965 0.0443174109184 166% => OK

Essay readability:
automated_readability_index: 12.4 13.3589403974 93% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 64.04 53.8541721854 119% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 10.3 11.0289183223 93% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 9.58 12.2367328918 78% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 7.99 8.42419426049 95% => OK
difficult_words: 64.0 63.6247240618 101% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 13.5 10.7273730684 126% => OK
gunning_fog: 11.6 10.498013245 110% => OK
text_standard: 12.0 11.2008830022 107% => OK
What are above readability scores?

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Rates: 81.6666666667 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 24.5 Out of 30
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Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.