The Little Ice Age was a period of unusually cold temperatures in many parts of the world that lasted from about the year 1350 until 1900 C.E. There were unusually harsh winters, and glaciers grew larger in many areas. Scientists have long wondered what caused the Little Ice Age. Several possible causes have been proposed.
First, the cooling may have been caused by disruption of ocean currents. Before the Little Ice Age, there was a period of unusually warm weather during which glaciers melted. These melted glaciers sent a large amount of cold freshwater into the Gulf Stream, a large ocean current that strongly affects Earth’s climate. Some scientists believe that this freshwater was enough to temporarily disrupt the Gulf Stream current. Such a disruption could have caused the Little Ice Age.
Second, volcanic eruptions could have caused the Little Ice Age. When volcanoes erupt, they send dark clouds of dust and sulfur gas into the atmosphere. These clouds, which can spread over great areas, block some sunlight from reaching Earth’s surface. This can decrease the global temperatures. Scientists know of several volcanic eruptions that took place during the Little Ice Age.
Third, substantial decreases in human populations may have contributed indirectly to the cooling of the climate. For a variety of reasons (disease, warfare, social disruption), the human population just before the Little Ice Age and during the early part of it was lower than it had been in a long time. Forest trees started growing on fields that were no longer used for agriculture. Since trees absorb carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, they decrease the greenhouse effect that keeps Earth warm. With more forest trees and less carbon dioxide, Earth became cooler.
Both the reading and lecture discuss about the Little Ice Age, a period of freezing period which last for many centuries and main causes of its occurrence. The former argue that numerous scholar were surprised by the main causes of Little Ice Age and provides three possible causes of this period, but latter challenges each of these points.
First of all, the author of passage asserts that due to Gulf stream the ocean current divergence and cause the Little Ice Age. However, the professor in lecture contends that this hypothesis does not hold true because Gulf Stream only presence in Europe and North America, but not in South hemisphere such as New Zealand and Southern Africa. In fact, it does not justify the root causes of Little Ice Age period.
Secondly, according to the passage, the expert opined that volcanic eruptions blocks the sunlight, since the dark clouds of dust and sulfur gas move upwards to atmosphere which led to Little Ice Age. In contrast, the lecture objects this idea. He supports his argument by presenting the example of color of snow and sky after volcanic eruptions which must be grey or white. Indeed, there was not any evidence to support the points given in reading.
Finally, the passage claims that populations of human diminishing in agriculture and profuse in the number of forest led to decline in the green house gases and earth become freezing. Nevertheless, like two causes before, the professor in his lecture proclaims that this reason is not feasible because as the population rejuvenate the farm land again become cultivated and reduce in the number of forest causes the green house effect. Thus, it does not convince with the reading passage.
Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 3, column 111, Rule ID: WHITESPACE_RULE
Message: Possible typo: you repeated a whitespace
...e ocean current divergence and cause the Little Ice Age. However, the professor i...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
but, finally, first, however, if, nevertheless, second, secondly, so, thus, in contrast, in fact, such as, first of all
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 4.0 10.4613686534 38% => More to be verbs wanted.
Auxiliary verbs: 1.0 5.04856512141 20% => OK
Conjunction : 14.0 7.30242825607 192% => OK
Relative clauses : 9.0 12.0772626932 75% => More relative clauses wanted.
Pronoun: 17.0 22.412803532 76% => OK
Preposition: 39.0 30.3222958057 129% => OK
Nominalization: 6.0 5.01324503311 120% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1419.0 1373.03311258 103% => OK
No of words: 285.0 270.72406181 105% => OK
Chars per words: 4.97894736842 5.08290768461 98% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.10876417139 4.04702891845 102% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.39653489467 2.5805825403 93% => OK
Unique words: 167.0 145.348785872 115% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.585964912281 0.540411800872 108% => OK
syllable_count: 441.9 419.366225166 105% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.55342163355 103% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 3.0 3.25607064018 92% => OK
Article: 8.0 8.23620309051 97% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 2.0 1.51434878587 132% => OK
Preposition: 5.0 2.5761589404 194% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 12.0 13.0662251656 92% => OK
Sentence length: 23.0 21.2450331126 108% => OK
Sentence length SD: 65.7361624645 49.2860985944 133% => OK
Chars per sentence: 118.25 110.228320801 107% => OK
Words per sentence: 23.75 21.698381199 109% => OK
Discourse Markers: 9.91666666667 7.06452816374 140% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 1.0 4.19205298013 24% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 4.0 4.33554083885 92% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 5.0 4.45695364238 112% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 3.0 4.27373068433 70% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.166271634014 0.272083759551 61% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0616512055775 0.0996497079465 62% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0733952544368 0.0662205650399 111% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.100286134608 0.162205337803 62% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0808258487785 0.0443174109184 182% => OK
automated_readability_index: 13.9 13.3589403974 104% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 48.13 53.8541721854 89% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 12.3 11.0289183223 112% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 11.9 12.2367328918 97% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.93 8.42419426049 106% => OK
difficult_words: 75.0 63.6247240618 118% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 13.0 10.7273730684 121% => OK
gunning_fog: 11.2 10.498013245 107% => OK
text_standard: 12.0 11.2008830022 107% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 90 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 27 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.