TPO-47 - Integrated Writing Task Pterosaurs were an ancient group of winged reptiles that lived alongside the dinosaurs. Many pterosaurs were very large, some as large as a giraffe and with a wingspan of over 12 meters. Paleontologists have long wondered

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TPO-47 - Integrated Writing Task Pterosaurs were an ancient group of winged reptiles that lived alongside the dinosaurs. Many pterosaurs were very large, some as large as a giraffe and with a wingspan of over 12 meters. Paleontologists have long wondered

Both the lecture and the reading discuss the possibility that pterosaur use powered flight. The author holds the view that the animal is not able to fly and suggests three reasons. Yet, the professor disagrees with the author and accordingly provides three counterclaims.

In the first place, the reading contends that pterosaur did not produce enough energy to powered-fly because they should be cold-blooded animal like modern reptile. However, the professor oppose it by arguing that recent discover reveals that pterosaur may have a fur cover, which kept them warm and made them be able to produce much energy. That is, the first theory is not plausible.

Secondly, the passage contends that the pterosaur is too heavy to flap its wings fast enough to stay aloft, but the speaker contradicts the theory by arguing that the large animal has a special anatomic feature. She further explains that the animal has a hollow bone instead of solid bone, meaning that even though its body is huge, it is light. In other words, the body weight was not a problem.

Thirdly, the author brings up the point that large pterosaurs were not able to launch from the ground to fly because their back leg muscles were too weak to launch. Once again, the professor refutes that argument and said it is true that pterosaurs would not be able to launch with their two legs, but in fact they could use four legs to launch rather than two legs. That is, the research discovered that the animal used four legs to walk, and if they run with four legs, it would be fast enough to launch, or they could use four legs to jump to launch. Consequently, the third theory is problematic as well.

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Average: 7.3 (1 vote)
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Transition Words or Phrases used:
accordingly, but, consequently, first, however, if, may, second, secondly, so, third, thirdly, well, in fact, in other words, it is true, in the first place

Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments

Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 16.0 10.4613686534 153% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 6.0 5.04856512141 119% => OK
Conjunction : 9.0 7.30242825607 123% => OK
Relative clauses : 16.0 12.0772626932 132% => OK
Pronoun: 30.0 22.412803532 134% => Less pronouns wanted
Preposition: 26.0 30.3222958057 86% => OK
Nominalization: 1.0 5.01324503311 20% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.

Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1387.0 1373.03311258 101% => OK
No of words: 291.0 270.72406181 107% => OK
Chars per words: 4.76632302405 5.08290768461 94% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.13022058845 4.04702891845 102% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.33815907759 2.5805825403 91% => OK
Unique words: 154.0 145.348785872 106% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.529209621993 0.540411800872 98% => OK
syllable_count: 404.1 419.366225166 96% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.4 1.55342163355 90% => OK

A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 5.0 3.25607064018 154% => OK
Article: 11.0 8.23620309051 134% => OK
Subordination: 0.0 1.25165562914 0% => More adverbial clause wanted.
Conjunction: 4.0 1.51434878587 264% => Less conjunction wanted as sentence beginning.
Preposition: 2.0 2.5761589404 78% => OK

Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 13.0 13.0662251656 99% => OK
Sentence length: 22.0 21.2450331126 104% => OK
Sentence length SD: 57.9708149383 49.2860985944 118% => OK
Chars per sentence: 106.692307692 110.228320801 97% => OK
Words per sentence: 22.3846153846 21.698381199 103% => OK
Discourse Markers: 12.0 7.06452816374 170% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 0.0 4.19205298013 0% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 4.0 4.33554083885 92% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 4.0 4.45695364238 90% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 5.0 4.27373068433 117% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?

Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.376249578321 0.272083759551 138% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.107194074447 0.0996497079465 108% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0935861442971 0.0662205650399 141% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.184673464277 0.162205337803 114% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0653359866038 0.0443174109184 147% => OK

Essay readability:
automated_readability_index: 12.2 13.3589403974 91% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 66.07 53.8541721854 123% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 9.5 11.0289183223 86% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 10.68 12.2367328918 87% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 7.39 8.42419426049 88% => OK
difficult_words: 49.0 63.6247240618 77% => More difficult words wanted.
linsear_write_formula: 10.5 10.7273730684 98% => OK
gunning_fog: 10.8 10.498013245 103% => OK
text_standard: 11.0 11.2008830022 98% => OK
What are above readability scores?

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Rates: 73.3333333333 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 22.0 Out of 30
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Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.