In this set of material, the passage and the lecture offer two opposing points of view about whether Pterosaurs were able to fly or not. While the passage argues that these animals were not able to fly and provides three reasons for support, the lecture emphasizes these creatures, in fact, were able to fly.
First of all, the passage asserts owing to the fact that Pterosaurs considered as cold-blooded animals, they had a slow metabolism; hence, they would not have had enough energy for flying. On the other hand, the speaker rejects to accept this remark. She states that scientists have found out that these creatures had a hairlike covering that is typical to warm-blooded animals; therefore, those animals were, in fact, warm-blooded and as a result, they had the energy needed to fly.
Second, the article declares that those animals were very large; thus, they were very heavy and would not have been able to keep themselves floating in the air. In contrasts, the lecture refutes this statement by illustrating the fact that Pterosaurs had a hollow bone structure which was very light; so, those animals were in fact light enough to be able to immerse into the air.
Finally, the author claims that Pterosaurs would not have been incapable of taking off from the ground owing to the fact that they may have needed strong muscles in their back legs in order to be able to launch into the air but the fossils records indicate that they had not that kind of structure. In contradict, the speaker throws down this notion by stating that those creatures did not take off like birds. Indeed, Pterosaurs used all its four limbs to run fast enough or jump high enough in order to launch itself into the air.
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Transition Words or Phrases used:
but, finally, first, hence, may, second, so, therefore, thus, while, in contrast, in fact, kind of, as a result, first of all, on the other hand
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 13.0 10.4613686534 124% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 4.0 5.04856512141 79% => OK
Conjunction : 7.0 7.30242825607 96% => OK
Relative clauses : 13.0 12.0772626932 108% => OK
Pronoun: 34.0 22.412803532 152% => Less pronouns wanted
Preposition: 43.0 30.3222958057 142% => OK
Nominalization: 1.0 5.01324503311 20% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1416.0 1373.03311258 103% => OK
No of words: 297.0 270.72406181 110% => OK
Chars per words: 4.76767676768 5.08290768461 94% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.15134772569 4.04702891845 103% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.34561027507 2.5805825403 91% => OK
Unique words: 153.0 145.348785872 105% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.515151515152 0.540411800872 95% => OK
syllable_count: 430.2 419.366225166 103% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.4 1.55342163355 90% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 7.0 3.25607064018 215% => Less pronouns wanted as sentence beginning.
Article: 8.0 8.23620309051 97% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 6.0 2.5761589404 233% => Less preposition wanted as sentence beginnings.
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 10.0 13.0662251656 77% => Need more sentences. Double check the format of sentences, make sure there is a space between two sentences, or have enough periods. And also check the lengths of sentences, maybe they are too long.
Sentence length: 29.0 21.2450331126 137% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively long.
Sentence length SD: 64.7858780908 49.2860985944 131% => OK
Chars per sentence: 141.6 110.228320801 128% => OK
Words per sentence: 29.7 21.698381199 137% => OK
Discourse Markers: 14.4 7.06452816374 204% => Less transition words/phrases wanted.
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 0.0 4.19205298013 0% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 5.0 4.33554083885 115% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 1.0 4.45695364238 22% => More negative sentences wanted.
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 4.0 4.27373068433 94% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.399746511877 0.272083759551 147% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.15675093034 0.0996497079465 157% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0875898961662 0.0662205650399 132% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.24302289034 0.162205337803 150% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0418610321429 0.0443174109184 94% => OK
automated_readability_index: 15.9 13.3589403974 119% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 58.96 53.8541721854 109% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 12.2 11.0289183223 111% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 10.98 12.2367328918 90% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.0 8.42419426049 95% => OK
difficult_words: 55.0 63.6247240618 86% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 10.5 10.7273730684 98% => OK
gunning_fog: 13.6 10.498013245 130% => OK
text_standard: 11.0 11.2008830022 98% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 80.0 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 24.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.