According to the passage, it is authors' conviction that Humpback whales navigate by the stars owing to some evidence. However, the professor casts doubt on this claim and rejects all the authors' points by providing some counter-arguments which will be explained in the following paragraphs.
Firstly, the reading asserts that humpback whales are intelligent enough to be capable of using the night sky for orientation. On the contrary, the lecturer rebuts this by mentioning that there is no connection between being intelligent and star navigation. He also adds an example of docks which use stars for navigation although they are not intelligent. Therefore, being intelligent is not a valid reason for using star navigation.
Secondly, the writer states that humpbacks migrate in straight lines so they should orient themselves by some objects or force. Because they are in the ocean, they can not use physical landmarks as other animals do. Hence, they are obliged to use stars. In the opposition, the professor implies that humpback can use their magnified ability for being in straight lines rather than using stars.
Thirdly, the reading postulates that spy-hopping is applied for looking at the stars. Conversely, the speaker clarifies that other animals like shark do spy-hopping for hunting so it would not be a proof for star navigation of whales. Moreover, he adds that the whales also do spy-hopping during the day, when there is no star. Hence, spy-hopping do not prove star navigation ability for whales.
In conclusion, the professor points out enough convincing evidence to rebut the authors' claim on the authenticity of the theory that whales use the star navigation for their migration.
- TPO-47 - Integrated Writing Task Pterosaurs were an ancient group of winged reptiles that lived alongside the dinosaurs. Many pterosaurs were very large, some as large as a giraffe and with a wingspan of over 12 meters. Paleontologists have long wondered 80
- For the successful development of a country, it is more important for a government to spend money on the education of very young children(five to ten years old) than to spend money on universities. 76
- TPO-42 - Independent Writing Task Workers are more satisfied when they have many different types of tasks to do during the workday than when they do similar tasks all day long.Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 83
- All university students should require to take history courses no matter what their field of study is 50
- Governments should spend more money supporting the arts than supporting athletics such as an Olympic team. 60
Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, but, conversely, first, firstly, hence, however, if, look, moreover, second, secondly, so, then, therefore, third, thirdly, in conclusion, on the contrary
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 15.0 10.4613686534 143% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 5.0 5.04856512141 99% => OK
Conjunction : 3.0 7.30242825607 41% => More conjunction wanted.
Relative clauses : 12.0 12.0772626932 99% => OK
Pronoun: 23.0 22.412803532 103% => OK
Preposition: 27.0 30.3222958057 89% => OK
Nominalization: 13.0 5.01324503311 259% => Less nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1438.0 1373.03311258 105% => OK
No of words: 273.0 270.72406181 101% => OK
Chars per words: 5.2673992674 5.08290768461 104% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.06481385082 4.04702891845 100% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.85193947147 2.5805825403 111% => OK
Unique words: 140.0 145.348785872 96% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.512820512821 0.540411800872 95% => More unique words wanted or less content wanted.
syllable_count: 432.9 419.366225166 103% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.55342163355 103% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 5.0 3.25607064018 154% => OK
Article: 8.0 8.23620309051 97% => OK
Subordination: 2.0 1.25165562914 160% => OK
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 4.0 2.5761589404 155% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 15.0 13.0662251656 115% => OK
Sentence length: 18.0 21.2450331126 85% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively short.
Sentence length SD: 38.6450514296 49.2860985944 78% => OK
Chars per sentence: 95.8666666667 110.228320801 87% => OK
Words per sentence: 18.2 21.698381199 84% => OK
Discourse Markers: 10.6666666667 7.06452816374 151% => OK
Paragraphs: 5.0 4.09492273731 122% => OK
Language errors: 0.0 4.19205298013 0% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 8.0 4.33554083885 185% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 3.0 4.45695364238 67% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 4.0 4.27373068433 94% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.431207793032 0.272083759551 158% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.154969582879 0.0996497079465 156% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0529193007509 0.0662205650399 80% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.22608320675 0.162205337803 139% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0604505095861 0.0443174109184 136% => OK
automated_readability_index: 12.5 13.3589403974 94% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 53.21 53.8541721854 99% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 5.55761589404 158% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 10.3 11.0289183223 93% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 13.29 12.2367328918 109% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.58 8.42419426049 102% => OK
difficult_words: 70.0 63.6247240618 110% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 11.5 10.7273730684 107% => OK
gunning_fog: 9.2 10.498013245 88% => OK
text_standard: 9.0 11.2008830022 80% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 85.0 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 25.5 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.