TPO-50 - Integrated Writing Task: Scientists are considering the possibility of sending humans to Mars in the coming decades. Although there have been successful manned missions to the Moon in the 1960s and 1970s, Mars is 150 times further away from Earth than the Moon is. Thus the project of sending humans to Mars would require solving an array of problems the Moon missions did not have to face.
One problem is that a round-trip to Mars and back is likely to take at least two years. The trip to the Moon lasted only a few days, and it was easy to bring enough supplies of food, water, and oxygen; but the cargo capacity of space vehicles is too limited to put on board the food, water, and oxygen required by a crew for a period of two years. Without those essentials, though, a Mars mission is impossible.
A second problem is that astronauts on the Mars mission would be in the zero-gravity environment of space for many months at a time. Spending a long time in the zero-gravity environment has negative effects on the human body, such as decreased muscle mass and lower bone density. Over the course of a two-year mission, the effects would be so severe, they would make it impossible for humans to make the trip without experiencing grave medical problems
Finally, astronauts on a mission to Mars would be exposed to dangerous levels of space radiation, much of which comes in the form of charged particles emitted by the Sun. Earth's magnetic field, which normally protects us from dangerous solar radiation, would not be able to protect a spaceship traveling in interplanetary space. Constructing a shield that would protect the whole spaceship from space radiation is at present impossible because it would add too much weight to the ship.
Both the reading and listening passage debate the merits of a voyage to Mars by human beings. however, the article providing three specific challenges to the viability of such a mission, the lecturer details solutions to all three reading points centered on supply availability, zero gravity effects, and radiation from the sun.
The author strongly proposes that inapposite of the moon trip, there is not enough mars voyage supply storage capability for food, water, and oxygen. however, since in-flight hydroponics can provide food on the ship, water for drinking, and oxygen for the two years mars trip, the speaker effectively casts doubt on the author's storage capability argument.
The writer opines that we have no solution to the zero-gravity effect, which negatively impacts the body by reducing muscle tone and bone density, which leads to medical problems. Similar to the storage argument, the orator weakens this argument by detailing techniques, exercises, and vitamins from space station endeavors that counter zero gravity effects.
Finally, we have the radiation argument, and the lecturer informs us that the sun only sometimes releases tradition, which we can counter by developing tools that notify the voyagers of the radiation so they can go into a lightly shield area. This information directly limits the author's reasoning that we have no protection from space radiation because a shield is too heavy.
- air pollution71
- Amtrak is an intercity train service currently owned by the United States government There are a number of critics who believe that the government should not own Amtrak and that Amtrak should be sold to a privately owned company These critics put forward 80
- TPO 50 Integrated Writing Task Scientists are considering the possibility of sending humans to Mars in the coming decades Although there have been successful manned missions to the Moon in the 1960s and 1970s Mars is 150 times further away from Earth than70
- One of the threats to endangered sea turtle species is the use of nets by commercial shrimp fishing boats When turtles get accidentally caught in the nets they cannot rise to the surface of the ocean to breathe and they die Some people suggest that this p61
Attribute Value Ideal
Final score: 22 in 30
Category: Good Excellent
No. of Grammatical Errors: 6 2
No. of Spelling Errors: 7 2
No. of Sentences: 6 12
No. of Words: 224 250
No. of Characters: 1173 1200
No. of Different Words: 133 150
Fourth Root of Number of Words: 3.869 4.2
Average Word Length: 5.237 4.6
Word Length SD: 2.56 2.4
No. of Words greater than 5 chars: 98 80
No. of Words greater than 6 chars: 77 60
No. of Words greater than 7 chars: 48 40
No. of Words greater than 8 chars: 28 20
Use of Passive Voice (%): 0 0
Avg. Sentence Length: 37.333 21.0
Sentence Length SD: 13.325 7.5
Use of Discourse Markers (%): 0.5 0.12
Sentence-Text Coherence: 0.473 0.35
Sentence-Para Coherence: 0.827 0.50
Sentence-Sentence Coherence: 0.194 0.07
Number of Paragraphs: 4 4