Dogs are domesticated animals that have a special and unique bond with humans, which is why they are often referred to as "man's best friend." There has always been a great deal of interest in the domestication of dogs, and after years of research on the topic, it is now understood how, when, and where dogs became domesticated.
Dogs evolved from wolves that were trained by humans as hunting companions. It is believed that ancient people took in orphaned wolf pups and then trained them to assist with hunting. Over many generations, these wolves developed domesticated traits, such as loyalty and friendliness towards humans. As this process continued, the wolves were gradually absorbed into human communities, eventually becoming dogs in their current forms.
Scientists have also discovered that dogs were domesticated approximately 16,000 years ago. To find out when domestication occurred, researchers measured the differences in DNA among modern dogs and calculated the rate at which dog DNA mutates. Using these values, they were able to determine the length of time dogs have been evolving from their first ancestor. This dates the earliest dogs to about 16,000 years ago.
Finally, compelling evidence proves dogs were domesticated in China and then spread to other areas around the world. Experts pinpointed the location of the earliest dogs by comparing genetic information from present-day dogs worldwide. The data showed that the highest genetic diversity exists in dogs from a region of southern China. Because species tend to have the highest levels of genetic variation in their places of origin, it appears dogs first emerged in China.
The lecture contends that the claim made in the passage, that research explains the origin and how domestication of dogs occurred, is not true and refutes the points made in the reading passage with evidence that uphold such claim. The detail of the evidence and how it proves that the reading passage’s claim is wrong will be elaborated in more detail below.
First of all, the lecture explains that wolves developing domestic traits throughout many generations cannot be true. Wolves had very different hunting styles with humans and because of this disparity, it would have made hunting extremely difficult for humans to accompany wolves. Moreover, training wolves to assist in hunting would have been nearly impossible because they show more aggressiveness as they grow.
Secondly, while the reading passage asserts that dogs were domesticated around 16,000 years ago, the lecture comments that there is evidence which proves the reading passage wrong. A footprint of a dog and a young boy walking side by side has been revealed and happens to have occurred 26,000 years ago. This indicates that domesticated dogs have been existing far before 16,000 years ago.
Last but not least, the lecture refutes the reading passage’s claim that the domesticated dogs must have first emerged in China, by explaining that genetic information have been found in multiple places. It is scattered around the world and have also been found North America and Middle East. The lecture also comments that the four distinct ancestors of domesticated dogs have been found in different locations.
- Dogs are domesticated animals that have a special and unique bond with humans which is why they are often referred to as man s best friend There has always been a great deal of interest in the domestication of dogs and after years of research on the topic 80
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Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, but, first, if, moreover, second, secondly, so, while, first of all
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 13.0 10.4613686534 124% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 5.0 5.04856512141 99% => OK
Conjunction : 9.0 7.30242825607 123% => OK
Relative clauses : 12.0 12.0772626932 99% => OK
Pronoun: 18.0 22.412803532 80% => OK
Preposition: 25.0 30.3222958057 82% => OK
Nominalization: 5.0 5.01324503311 100% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1337.0 1373.03311258 97% => OK
No of words: 254.0 270.72406181 94% => More content wanted.
Chars per words: 5.26377952756 5.08290768461 104% => OK
Fourth root words length: 3.99216450694 4.04702891845 99% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.54426068761 2.5805825403 99% => OK
Unique words: 132.0 145.348785872 91% => More unique words wanted.
Unique words percentage: 0.51968503937 0.540411800872 96% => OK
syllable_count: 405.0 419.366225166 97% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.55342163355 103% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 4.0 3.25607064018 123% => OK
Article: 7.0 8.23620309051 85% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 0.0 1.51434878587 0% => OK
Preposition: 1.0 2.5761589404 39% => More preposition wanted as sentence beginning.
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 11.0 13.0662251656 84% => Need more sentences. Double check the format of sentences, make sure there is a space between two sentences, or have enough periods. And also check the lengths of sentences, maybe they are too long.
Sentence length: 23.0 21.2450331126 108% => OK
Sentence length SD: 44.4319518715 49.2860985944 90% => OK
Chars per sentence: 121.545454545 110.228320801 110% => OK
Words per sentence: 23.0909090909 21.698381199 106% => OK
Discourse Markers: 6.63636363636 7.06452816374 94% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 0.0 4.19205298013 0% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 0.0 4.33554083885 0% => More positive sentences wanted.
Sentences with negative sentiment : 6.0 4.45695364238 135% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 5.0 4.27373068433 117% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.25179552087 0.272083759551 93% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.106554227249 0.0996497079465 107% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0573991532613 0.0662205650399 87% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.14837193692 0.162205337803 91% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0516635364959 0.0443174109184 117% => OK
automated_readability_index: 14.9 13.3589403974 112% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 48.13 53.8541721854 89% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 5.55761589404 158% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 12.3 11.0289183223 112% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 13.52 12.2367328918 110% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.45 8.42419426049 100% => OK
difficult_words: 59.0 63.6247240618 93% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 14.0 10.7273730684 131% => OK
gunning_fog: 11.2 10.498013245 107% => OK
text_standard: 14.0 11.2008830022 125% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 80.0 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 24.0 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.