Hail—pieces of ice that form and fall from clouds instead of snow or rain—has always been a problem for farmers in some areas of the United States. Hail pellets can fall with great force and destroy crops in the field. Over the last few decades, a method of reducing hail, called “cloud seeding,” has been tried. In cloud seeding, the chemical silver iodide is sprayed on storm clouds from an airplane. This makes the clouds produce harmless rain or snow instead of hail. Several pieces of evidence suggest that cloud seeding has been effective in protecting crops from hail.
Experiments in the laboratory support the idea that cloud seeding is effective. Hail usually forms in water vapor that is close to the freezing point. However, when experimenters added silver iodide to cold water vapor in the laboratory, they often observed light snow forming instead of hail pellets.
Evidence from Asia
There is evidence about the effectiveness of cloud seeding from several countries around the world. In some Asian countries, for example, cloud seeding has been successfully used to control precipitation in urban areas. These positive results suggest that cloud seeding should also be effective in protecting fields and farms in the United States.
A few local studies also support the value of cloud seeding. One study conducted in a farming region in the central United States, for example, directly monitored crop damage due to hail. The study found that in an area where cloud seeding was used there was reduced hail damage compared to previous years.
The reading passage proposes three different reasons as to why cloud seeding, which is a method to make the cloud produce harmless snow or rain, can reduce the damages cause from the hail. The lecturer opposes this and provides counterarguments for each point mentioned in the reading passage.
First, the reading passage states that the Laboratory experiments indicates that the silver iodide added into cold water vapor, it create light snow instead of hail. However, the lecturer arguese that it might be true that silver iodide can turn hail into snow. But it could also prevent all other form of perciptations such as rain and snow. If cloud seeding is use in the farmland, it will case the drought and the crops won't get enough water to grow.
Second, the reading passage states that cloud seeding has already been successsfully control preciptation in some Asia urban areas. However, the lecturer states that the this success might not be able to dulpicate in United States. In the arban area, there has lots of pollution and it formed a favorable place for cloud seeding. In this case, cloud seeding might not be effective in countryside which has lots of crops because there doesn't have good condition for cloud seeding.
Lastly, accorging to the reading passage, local studies has directly monitored crop damage due to a hail, it reveals the area where cloud seeding had used, the damage of the crops had decreased. However, the lecturer states that this argument is not pausible at all. The hail in eastern north of the area that the cloud seeding had used also decreased. Therefore, the reduce hail damage might caused by the natural weather variation rather than the cloud seeding.
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 3, column 132, Rule ID: IT_VBZ
Message: Did you mean 'creates'?
... iodide added into cold water vapor, it create light snow instead of hail. However, th...
Line 5, column 167, Rule ID: DT_DT
Message: Maybe you need to remove the second determiner so that only 'the' or 'this' is left.
Suggestion: the; this
...reas. However, the lecturer states that the this success might not be able to dulpicate ...
Line 5, column 435, Rule ID: EN_CONTRACTION_SPELLING
Message: Possible spelling mistake found
...e which has lots of crops because there doesnt have good condition for cloud seeding. ...
Line 7, column 365, Rule ID: A_INFINITVE
Message: Probably a wrong construction: a/the + infinitive
...ing had used also decreased. Therefore, the reduce hail damage might caused by the natural...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, but, first, however, if, lastly, second, so, therefore, as to, such as
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 7.0 10.4613686534 67% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 8.0 5.04856512141 158% => OK
Conjunction : 6.0 7.30242825607 82% => OK
Relative clauses : 11.0 12.0772626932 91% => OK
Pronoun: 18.0 22.412803532 80% => OK
Preposition: 25.0 30.3222958057 82% => OK
Nominalization: 5.0 5.01324503311 100% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1421.0 1373.03311258 103% => OK
No of words: 285.0 270.72406181 105% => OK
Chars per words: 4.98596491228 5.08290768461 98% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.10876417139 4.04702891845 102% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.39653489467 2.5805825403 93% => OK
Unique words: 154.0 145.348785872 106% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.540350877193 0.540411800872 100% => OK
syllable_count: 429.3 419.366225166 102% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.5 1.55342163355 97% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 3.0 3.25607064018 92% => OK
Article: 10.0 8.23620309051 121% => OK
Subordination: 1.0 1.25165562914 80% => OK
Conjunction: 1.0 1.51434878587 66% => OK
Preposition: 2.0 2.5761589404 78% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 14.0 13.0662251656 107% => OK
Sentence length: 20.0 21.2450331126 94% => OK
Sentence length SD: 38.1385765388 49.2860985944 77% => OK
Chars per sentence: 101.5 110.228320801 92% => OK
Words per sentence: 20.3571428571 21.698381199 94% => OK
Discourse Markers: 5.42857142857 7.06452816374 77% => OK
Paragraphs: 4.0 4.09492273731 98% => OK
Language errors: 4.0 4.19205298013 95% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 6.0 4.33554083885 138% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 5.0 4.45695364238 112% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 3.0 4.27373068433 70% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.241445581525 0.272083759551 89% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0863520442046 0.0996497079465 87% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0384987847293 0.0662205650399 58% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.15153773521 0.162205337803 93% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.00673285587322 0.0443174109184 15% => Paragraphs are similar to each other. Some content may get duplicated or it is not exactly right on the topic.
automated_readability_index: 12.3 13.3589403974 92% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 59.64 53.8541721854 111% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 5.55761589404 56% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 9.9 11.0289183223 90% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 11.66 12.2367328918 95% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.17 8.42419426049 97% => OK
difficult_words: 64.0 63.6247240618 101% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 11.0 10.7273730684 103% => OK
gunning_fog: 10.0 10.498013245 95% => OK
text_standard: 10.0 11.2008830022 89% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 75.0 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 22.5 Out of 30
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.