The following memorandum is from the business manager of Happy Pancake House restaurants.
"Recently, butter has been replaced by margarine in Happy Pancake House restaurants throughout the southwestern United States. This change, however, has had little impact on our customers. In fact, only about 2 percent of customers have complained, indicating that an average of 98 people out of 100 are happy with the change. Furthermore, many servers have reported that a number of customers who ask for butter do not complain when they are given margarine instead. Clearly, either these customers do not distinguish butter from margarine or they use the term 'butter' to refer to either butter or margarine."
Write a response in which you discuss one or more alternative explanations that could rival the proposed explanation and explain how your explanation(s) can plausibly account for the facts presented in the argument.
The author claims that Happy Pancake House restaurant's strategy in replacing butter with margarine has little effect on its customers. However, this claim is flawed because it relies on several dubious assumptions.
The author states that only about 2 percent of customers have complained. However, we do not know how is the information collected. It can be collected from the in-restaurant feedbacks, online review, or survey in a magazine. If the restaurant has sent out surveys on several platforms, but only judge the results partially from the certain platform where the result is favorable and ideal. In this case, the claim fails to provide evidence that only 2 percent of customers have complained overall.
Moreover, 2 percent of the customers have complained does not indicate that an average of 98 people out of 100 are happy with the change. People who are involved in the investigation might be either neutral or happy, or that they are too lazy to complain even they are not happy with the change. Also, if the restaurant gives out benefits such as discount coupons or free dishes to encourage their customer to leave positive feedback instead of complaints, the result of the investigation will as well be biased.
The author also claims that since many servers have reported that a number of customers who ask for butter do not complain when they are given margarine, these customers do not distinguish butter from margarine. However, the author fails to provide clear details about "a number of". In some categories, 10 people can be counted as "a number of", while in another 10 thousand people are only regarded as "a little". To ensure it, the author must provide the precise number of people who complain.
While on the surface the author's claim may appear to have logical sense, it fails to provide detailed evidence that is integral to identifying whether their conclusion is correct. Customers may only be lazy so they do not complain, or that the restaurant selects ideal results or biased method to undergo the investigation. To strengthen it the author must provide us clear details of where the collected whether they collected the data without sending out benefits.
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Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, but, however, if, may, moreover, so, then, well, while, such as
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 16.0 19.6327345309 81% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 8.0 12.9520958084 62% => OK
Conjunction : 8.0 11.1786427146 72% => OK
Relative clauses : 15.0 13.6137724551 110% => OK
Pronoun: 27.0 28.8173652695 94% => OK
Preposition: 47.0 55.5748502994 85% => OK
Nominalization: 6.0 16.3942115768 37% => More nominalizations (nouns with a suffix like: tion ment ence ance) wanted.
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 1873.0 2260.96107784 83% => OK
No of words: 364.0 441.139720559 83% => More content wanted.
Chars per words: 5.1456043956 5.12650576532 100% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.36792674256 4.56307096286 96% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.72213101869 2.78398813304 98% => OK
Unique words: 184.0 204.123752495 90% => More unique words wanted.
Unique words percentage: 0.505494505495 0.468620217663 108% => OK
syllable_count: 581.4 705.55239521 82% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.6 1.59920159681 100% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 5.0 4.96107784431 101% => OK
Article: 10.0 8.76447105788 114% => OK
Subordination: 4.0 2.70958083832 148% => OK
Conjunction: 4.0 1.67365269461 239% => Less conjunction wanted as sentence beginning.
Preposition: 4.0 4.22255489022 95% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 17.0 19.7664670659 86% => OK
Sentence length: 21.0 22.8473053892 92% => OK
Sentence length SD: 46.6765354535 57.8364921388 81% => OK
Chars per sentence: 110.176470588 119.503703932 92% => OK
Words per sentence: 21.4117647059 23.324526521 92% => OK
Discourse Markers: 4.05882352941 5.70786347227 71% => OK
Paragraphs: 5.0 5.15768463074 97% => OK
Language errors: 0.0 5.25449101796 0% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 11.0 8.20758483034 134% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 4.0 6.88822355289 58% => More negative sentences wanted.
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 2.0 4.67664670659 43% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.129061656962 0.218282227539 59% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0478269913495 0.0743258471296 64% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0810468004209 0.0701772020484 115% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.095640172284 0.128457276422 74% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0949780884911 0.0628817314937 151% => OK
automated_readability_index: 13.5 14.3799401198 94% => Automated_readability_index is low.
flesch_reading_ease: 50.16 48.3550499002 104% => OK
smog_index: 3.1 7.1628742515 43% => Smog_index is low.
flesch_kincaid_grade: 11.5 12.197005988 94% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 12.59 12.5979740519 100% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.76 8.32208582834 105% => OK
difficult_words: 94.0 98.500998004 95% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 6.5 12.3882235529 52% => Linsear_write_formula is low.
gunning_fog: 10.4 11.1389221557 93% => OK
text_standard: 14.0 11.9071856287 118% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 75.0 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 4.5 Out of 6
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.
Attribute Value Ideal
Final score: 3.0 out of 6
Category: Satisfactory Excellent
No. of Grammatical Errors: 0 2
No. of Spelling Errors: 0 2
No. of Sentences: 17 15
No. of Words: 364 350
No. of Characters: 1789 1500
No. of Different Words: 176 200
Fourth Root of Number of Words: 4.368 4.7
Average Word Length: 4.915 4.6
Word Length SD: 2.616 2.4
No. of Words greater than 5 chars: 143 100
No. of Words greater than 6 chars: 103 80
No. of Words greater than 7 chars: 63 40
No. of Words greater than 8 chars: 39 20
Use of Passive Voice (%): 0 0
Avg. Sentence Length: 21.412 21.0
Sentence Length SD: 7.859 7.5
Use of Discourse Markers (%): 0.588 0.12
Sentence-Text Coherence: 0.347 0.35
Sentence-Para Coherence: 0.589 0.50
Sentence-Sentence Coherence: 0.107 0.07
Number of Paragraphs: 5 5