The following is part of a memorandum from the president of Humana University.
"Last year the number of students who enrolled in online degree programs offered by nearby Omni University increased by 50 percent. During the same year, Omni showed a significant decrease from prior years in expenditures for dormitory and classroom space, most likely because instruction in the online programs takes place via the Internet. In contrast, over the past three years, enrollment at Humana University has failed to grow, and the cost of maintaining buildings has increased along with our budget deficit. To address these problems, Humana University will begin immediately to create and actively promote online degree programs like those at Omni. We predict that instituting these online degree programs will help Humana both increase its total enrollment and solve its budget problems."
Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the prediction and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the prediction.
The president of Humana University wishes to increase the university’s total enrollment and solve its budget problems by introducing an online degree program, citing the fact that the expenditure for dormitory and classroom space of Omni University reduced significantly after online degree programs were provided. Although this argument seems plausible, a close scrutiny reveals its logical untenability.
First of all, the reason why expenditure for dormitory and classroom space decreased in Omni University is unknown. Presumably it is due to a reduction in the number of students who use the dormitories and classrooms. However, a causal relationship does not necessarily present between the increase of online students and the decrease of on-campus students. Perhaps less students enrolled in Omni University because its education quality has deteriorated. There are lots of possibilities and without further investigation, conclusion cannot be reached that it is resulted from the online programs.
Even if offering an online program does lead to a decline in the number of on-campus students in Omni University, there is no assurance that it would have the same effect on Humana University. Students could have different preference in these two schools. Perhaps students in Humana University prefer face-to-face lectures. Or perhaps many of the students in Humana University could not afford a computer or Internet and hence have no access to online learning programs. In this way, on-campus students in Humana University may not reduce simply because the introduction of online programs.
What’s more, even assuming on-campus students are fewer after providing the online program, this does not necessarily mean Humana University could hence cut down its budget. The president mentioned that the cost of maintaining buildings has increased, but does not state the reasons. It is possible that Humana University was established a long time ago and thus the buildings are old and maintenance and update is therefore needed. If this is the case, then it has nothing to do with the number of students. Humana University would still have to maintain its buildings.
The reasons of the budget deficit are not clear as well. It could be resulted from other expenses, for example, salaries for faculties. Therefore, the deficit would not necessarily be cut by limiting the expenditure for dormitory and classroom space. The causes of the deficit should be investigated carefully and relevant measures should be taken. The president also fails to consider that a potentially large expenses would be needed to develop an online program. Hence, offering an online program seems not suffice to solve the budget problems either way.
Finally, the president expresses his wish to increase total enrollment by introducing the online program. Without further evidence, it is hard to conclude that the online program could attract more students.
In sum, more facts would be needed to determine whether the proposal of instituting an online degree program could achieve the president’s objectives.
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Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 1, column 363, Rule ID: CLOSE_SCRUTINY
Message: Use simply 'scrutiny'.
...though this argument seems plausible, a close scrutiny reveals its logical untenability. Fi...
Line 3, column 367, Rule ID: FEWER_LESS
Message: Did you mean 'fewer'? The noun students is countable.
...decrease of on-campus students. Perhaps less students enrolled in Omni University be...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, but, finally, first, hence, however, if, may, so, still, then, therefore, thus, well, for example, first of all
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 21.0 19.6327345309 107% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 15.0 12.9520958084 116% => OK
Conjunction : 15.0 11.1786427146 134% => OK
Relative clauses : 8.0 13.6137724551 59% => More relative clauses wanted.
Pronoun: 25.0 28.8173652695 87% => OK
Preposition: 56.0 55.5748502994 101% => OK
Nominalization: 11.0 16.3942115768 67% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 2648.0 2260.96107784 117% => OK
No of words: 477.0 441.139720559 108% => OK
Chars per words: 5.55136268344 5.12650576532 108% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.67336384929 4.56307096286 102% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.98958544591 2.78398813304 107% => OK
Unique words: 224.0 204.123752495 110% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.469601677149 0.468620217663 100% => OK
syllable_count: 854.1 705.55239521 121% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.8 1.59920159681 113% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 4.0 4.96107784431 81% => OK
Article: 10.0 8.76447105788 114% => OK
Subordination: 3.0 2.70958083832 111% => OK
Conjunction: 2.0 1.67365269461 119% => OK
Preposition: 4.0 4.22255489022 95% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 26.0 19.7664670659 132% => OK
Sentence length: 18.0 22.8473053892 79% => The Avg. Sentence Length is relatively short.
Sentence length SD: 52.979690761 57.8364921388 92% => OK
Chars per sentence: 101.846153846 119.503703932 85% => OK
Words per sentence: 18.3461538462 23.324526521 79% => OK
Discourse Markers: 4.5 5.70786347227 79% => OK
Paragraphs: 7.0 5.15768463074 136% => Less paragraphs wanted.
Language errors: 2.0 5.25449101796 38% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 8.0 8.20758483034 97% => OK
Sentences with negative sentiment : 9.0 6.88822355289 131% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 9.0 4.67664670659 192% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.281146630921 0.218282227539 129% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.0782498964809 0.0743258471296 105% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0646500620965 0.0701772020484 92% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.14722326926 0.128457276422 115% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0581778666464 0.0628817314937 93% => OK
automated_readability_index: 13.9 14.3799401198 97% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 36.28 48.3550499002 75% => OK
smog_index: 8.8 7.1628742515 123% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 12.7 12.197005988 104% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 14.91 12.5979740519 118% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.67 8.32208582834 104% => OK
difficult_words: 125.0 98.500998004 127% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 13.0 12.3882235529 105% => OK
gunning_fog: 9.2 11.1389221557 83% => OK
text_standard: 9.0 11.9071856287 76% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Maximum six paragraphs wanted.
Rates: 58.33 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 3.5 Out of 6
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.
Attribute Value Ideal
Final score: 4.5 out of 6
Category: Good Excellent
No. of Grammatical Errors: 0 2
No. of Spelling Errors: 0 2
No. of Sentences: 26 15
No. of Words: 477 350
No. of Characters: 2563 1500
No. of Different Words: 220 200
Fourth Root of Number of Words: 4.673 4.7
Average Word Length: 5.373 4.6
Word Length SD: 2.841 2.4
No. of Words greater than 5 chars: 216 100
No. of Words greater than 6 chars: 165 80
No. of Words greater than 7 chars: 124 40
No. of Words greater than 8 chars: 76 20
Use of Passive Voice (%): 0 0
Avg. Sentence Length: 18.346 21.0
Sentence Length SD: 7.913 7.5
Use of Discourse Markers (%): 0.615 0.12
Sentence-Text Coherence: 0.308 0.35
Sentence-Para Coherence: 0.549 0.50
Sentence-Sentence Coherence: 0.079 0.07
Number of Paragraphs: 7 5