The following is part of a memorandum from the president of Humana University.
"Last year the number of students who enrolled in online degree programs offered by nearby Omni University increased by 50 percent. During the same year, Omni showed a significant decrease from prior years in expenditures for dormitory and classroom space, most likely because online instruction takes place via the Internet. In contrast, over the past three years, enrollment at Humana University has failed to grow and the cost of maintaining buildings has increased. Thus, to increase enrollment and solve the problem of budget deficits at Humana University, we should initiate and actively promote online degree programs like those at Omni."
Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted.
It might seem logical, at first glance, to agree with the argument that Humana University should imitate the practice taken by Omni University, promoting online degree programs, so as to increase enrollment and save expenditure. However, in order to fully evaluate this argument, we need to examine some invalid assumptions made by the author first.
Firstly, the author makes the assumption that the decrease in expenditures for dormitory and classroom space in Omni University is because online programs takes place. It is very likely that the two phenomena had no causality at all and they just accidentally happened at the same year. Perhaps last year, the university ameliorated its management of dormitory and classroom via renting them to local communities to organize activities, and then a large percentage of maintenance fee was paid by these communities, so the expenditures provided by school decreased last year. If it were the case, the conclusion that the fall of expenditures resulted from the increase in online enrollment would be seriously weakened.
Secondly, the author implies that the low enrollment in Humana University is more likely to continue this year. However, what if the enrollment would grow during the following years? It could turn out to be the case, for example, that the enrollment at Humana University failed to grow because over the past three years, the entering students were not enough. Maybe this year, there would be a massive amount of entering students that chose to study in Humana University. If we were to learn that less students getting enrolled in this university does not necessarily mean that there would never be a ballooning afterwards, it would significantly undermine the conclusion.
Finally, another invalid assumption is that if Humana University also promote online degree programs by mimicking Omni, the problem regarding low enrollment would be solved. The mere evidence that Omni succeeded by online teaching does not necessarily mean that Humana would get the same result just like Omni. Perhaps even Humana implemented online course, students still would not choose this school simply because of the poor educational quality in Humana. If this possibility was proved to be true, it would significantly weaken the final conclusion that Humana is more likely to increase enrollment via providing online degree programs.
In conclusion, a significant amount of assumptions need to be assessed before the author firmly achieved the conclusion that Humana University could not only augment the enrollment but also save budget throughout the implementation of online degree programs.
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- Governments should spend money on railways rather than roads. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? 84
Grammar and spelling errors:
Line 1, column 179, Rule ID: SO_AS_TO
Message: Use simply 'to'
...sity, promoting online degree programs, so as to increase enrollment and save expenditur...
Line 5, column 498, Rule ID: FEWER_LESS
Message: Did you mean 'fewer'? The noun students is countable.
...na University. If we were to learn that less students getting enrolled in this unive...
Line 5, column 613, Rule ID: A_PLURAL
Message: Don't use indefinite articles with plural words. Did you mean 'afterward'?
... that there would never be a ballooning afterwards, it would significantly undermine the c...
Transition Words or Phrases used:
also, but, finally, first, firstly, however, if, may, regarding, second, secondly, so, still, then, as to, for example, in conclusion
Attributes: Values AverageValues Percentages(Values/AverageValues)% => Comments
Performance on Part of Speech:
To be verbs : 17.0 19.6327345309 87% => OK
Auxiliary verbs: 15.0 12.9520958084 116% => OK
Conjunction : 6.0 11.1786427146 54% => More conjunction wanted.
Relative clauses : 14.0 13.6137724551 103% => OK
Pronoun: 32.0 28.8173652695 111% => OK
Preposition: 50.0 55.5748502994 90% => OK
Nominalization: 17.0 16.3942115768 104% => OK
Performance on vocabulary words:
No of characters: 2244.0 2260.96107784 99% => OK
No of words: 414.0 441.139720559 94% => More content wanted.
Chars per words: 5.42028985507 5.12650576532 106% => OK
Fourth root words length: 4.51076378781 4.56307096286 99% => OK
Word Length SD: 2.87320642777 2.78398813304 103% => OK
Unique words: 204.0 204.123752495 100% => OK
Unique words percentage: 0.492753623188 0.468620217663 105% => OK
syllable_count: 729.0 705.55239521 103% => OK
avg_syllables_per_word: 1.8 1.59920159681 113% => OK
A sentence (or a clause, phrase) starts by:
Pronoun: 7.0 4.96107784431 141% => OK
Article: 8.0 8.76447105788 91% => OK
Subordination: 3.0 2.70958083832 111% => OK
Conjunction: 1.0 1.67365269461 60% => OK
Preposition: 4.0 4.22255489022 95% => OK
Performance on sentences:
How many sentences: 16.0 19.7664670659 81% => Need more sentences. Double check the format of sentences, make sure there is a space between two sentences, or have enough periods. And also check the lengths of sentences, maybe they are too long.
Sentence length: 25.0 22.8473053892 109% => OK
Sentence length SD: 55.851225367 57.8364921388 97% => OK
Chars per sentence: 140.25 119.503703932 117% => OK
Words per sentence: 25.875 23.324526521 111% => OK
Discourse Markers: 8.3125 5.70786347227 146% => OK
Paragraphs: 5.0 5.15768463074 97% => OK
Language errors: 3.0 5.25449101796 57% => OK
Sentences with positive sentiment : 4.0 8.20758483034 49% => More positive sentences wanted.
Sentences with negative sentiment : 8.0 6.88822355289 116% => OK
Sentences with neutral sentiment: 4.0 4.67664670659 86% => OK
What are sentences with positive/Negative/neutral sentiment?
Coherence and Cohesion:
Essay topic to essay body coherence: 0.304884608136 0.218282227539 140% => OK
Sentence topic coherence: 0.113703100725 0.0743258471296 153% => OK
Sentence topic coherence SD: 0.0499090072716 0.0701772020484 71% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence: 0.168588658204 0.128457276422 131% => OK
Paragraph topic coherence SD: 0.0484286066422 0.0628817314937 77% => OK
automated_readability_index: 17.0 14.3799401198 118% => OK
flesch_reading_ease: 29.18 48.3550499002 60% => OK
smog_index: 11.2 7.1628742515 156% => OK
flesch_kincaid_grade: 15.4 12.197005988 126% => OK
coleman_liau_index: 14.45 12.5979740519 115% => OK
dale_chall_readability_score: 8.61 8.32208582834 103% => OK
difficult_words: 98.0 98.500998004 99% => OK
linsear_write_formula: 15.0 12.3882235529 121% => OK
gunning_fog: 12.0 11.1389221557 108% => OK
text_standard: 15.0 11.9071856287 126% => OK
What are above readability scores?
Rates: 66.67 out of 100
Scores by essay e-grader: 4.0 Out of 6
Note: the e-grader does NOT examine the meaning of words and ideas. VIP users will receive further evaluations by advanced module of e-grader and human graders.
Attribute Value Ideal
Final score: 3.5 out of 6
Category: Satisfactory Excellent
No. of Grammatical Errors: 0 2
No. of Spelling Errors: 0 2
No. of Sentences: 16 15
No. of Words: 414 350
No. of Characters: 2189 1500
No. of Different Words: 195 200
Fourth Root of Number of Words: 4.511 4.7
Average Word Length: 5.287 4.6
Word Length SD: 2.811 2.4
No. of Words greater than 5 chars: 169 100
No. of Words greater than 6 chars: 121 80
No. of Words greater than 7 chars: 97 40
No. of Words greater than 8 chars: 66 20
Use of Passive Voice (%): 0 0
Avg. Sentence Length: 25.875 21.0
Sentence Length SD: 7.881 7.5
Use of Discourse Markers (%): 0.812 0.12
Sentence-Text Coherence: 0.374 0.35
Sentence-Para Coherence: 0.601 0.50
Sentence-Sentence Coherence: 0.148 0.07
Number of Paragraphs: 5 5